Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo, Green Way Research, Valley Spirit Center, Gushen Grove Notebooks, Red Bluff, California
Chapter 41 Chapter 43 Index to All the Chapters Taoism Cloud Hands Blog
English Chinese Spanish
English and Chinese (Wade-Giles) Terms: Transformations, Begets or Produces (shêng), Dao, Cause or Make (wei), Modification, Reason, Violence, Two (erh), Three (san), One (yi), Many, Tao, Obscure, Carriages, Princes, Fools, Detest or Loathe or Hate (wu), Orphan (ku), Widow (kua), King (wang), Lord (kung), Make or Act (wei), Forceful or Violent (ch'iang, liang), Increase, Decrease, Unity, Duality, Teaching, Virtue, Tyrant, Hostility, Unnatural, Myriad Beings, 10,000 Things (wan wu), Language, Titles, Creative, Things or Beings (huo), Loose or Decrease (sun), Gain or Increase (yi), Taught or Teachings (chiao), Origin, Breath, Chi, Embrace or Wrap (pao), Emptiness, Yin or Shade or Female Principle (yin), Yang or Sun or Male Principle (yang), Harmony, Death, Blend or Combine (ch'ung), Vital Force or Vital Breath (ch'i, qi), Obtain or Gain (tê), Father or Chief (fu), Harmony or Balanced (ho), People or Mankind (jên), 道化
Términos en Español: Transformaciones, Producir, Parir, Causar, Cosas, Modificación, Racional, Violencia, Dos, Tres, Uno, Muchos, Carrozas, Príncipes, Tontos, Aumentar, Disminuir, Unidad, Dualidad, Virtud, Tirano, Hostilidad, Contra Natura, Idiomas, Títulos, Origen, Respiración, Vacío, Yin, Yang, Armonía, Muerte, Producir, Causa, Hacer, Detesta, Huérfano, Viuda, Rey, Señor, Ley, Contundente, Violentos, Aumentar, Enseñar, Abrazo, Sombra, Sol, Combinar, Obtener, Ganancia, Padre, Jefe, Armonía, Equilibrados, Gente, Humanidad, Mezcla.
"The Dao produced One; One produced Two;
Two produced Three; Three produced All things.
All things leave behind them the Obscurity out of which they have come, and go forward to embrace
the Brightness into which they have emerged, while they are harmonized by the Breath of Vacancy.
What men dislike is to be orphans, to have little virtue, to be as carriages without naves;
and yet these are the designations which kings and princes use for themselves.
So it is that some things are increased by being diminished, and others are diminished by being increased.
What other men thus teach, I also teach.
The violent and strong do not die their natural death.
I will make this the basis of my teaching."
- Translated by James Legge, 1891, Chapter 42
"The Way gave birth to unity,
Unity gave birth to duality,
Duality gave birth to trinity,
Trinity gave birth to the myriad creatures.
The myriad creatures bear yin on their backs and embrace yang in their bosoms.
They neutralize these vapors
and thereby achieve harmony.
That which all under heaven hate most
Is to be orphaned, destitute, and hapless.
Yet kings and dukes call themselves thus.
Things may be diminished by being increased, increased by being diminished.
That which people teach,
After deliberation, I also teach people.
"The tyrant does not die a natural death."
I take this as my mentor."
- Translated by Victor Mair, Chapter 42
"Dao sprouted as one.
One sprouted into two.
Two sprouted into three.
Three sprouted into all the living things in the universe.
All living things suffer through darkness and embrace the light.
In the middle, life's energy finds a way to act from the harmony of both.
A person's stance might be to really hate being "alone, isolated and One Without Grain".
Yet the nobility choose to call themselves by that title.
A living thing may be damaged by increase; or may profit by decrease.
Therefore, if a person realizes that their attitude can teach others,
In the evening they will consider and discuss things, teaching each other.
Therefore those who are aggressive and violent will die incomplete.
I'll take these lessons as though they came from my father."
- Translated by Nina Correa, 2005, Chapter 42
Cloud Hands Blog
"The way begets the one
The one begets the two
The two beget the three
The three beget the myriad beings
The myriad beings carry the shadow and embrace the light
Mixing the breaths with harmonious action
People have their reasons to truly dislike being
“Orphaned & friendless, without worth”
Yet sovereign & duke take these as titles
Since beings may sometimes lose something, and yet benefit
May sometimes gain something, and yet be diminished
What someone else has taught
I too come to teach:
Those who are forceful & hostile
do not meet their natural ends
I will regard this as a premise of the teaching."
- Translated by Bradford Hatcher, 2005, Chapter 42
"The Tao gives birth to the One.
The One gives birth to two.
Two gives birth to three.
And three gives birth to the ten thousand things.
The ten thousand things have their backs in the shadow
while they embrace the light.
Harmony is achieved by blending
the breaths of these two forces.
People dislike the words "alone," "helpless," "worthless,"
yet this is how Princes describe them selves.
So it is that sometimes a thing is increased
by being diminished and
diminished by being increased.
What others teach I also teach:
"A violent person will not die a natural death."
I shall make this the basis of my teaching."
- Translated by Tolbert McCarroll, 1982, Chapter 42
- Chinese characters, Tao Te Ching, Chapter 42
tao shêng yi.
yi shéng erh.
erh shêng san.
san shêng wan wu.
wan wu fu yin erh pao yang.
ch'ung ch'i yi wei ho.
jên chih so wu wei ku kua pu ku, erh wang kung yi wei ch'êng.
ku wu huo sun chih erh yi.
huo yi chih erh sun.
jên chih so chiao, wo yi chiao chih.
ch'iang liang chê pu tê ch'i ssu.
wu chiang yi wei chiao fu.
- Wade-Giles Romanization, Tao Te Ching, Chapter 42
Audio Version in Chinese of Chapter 42 of the Tao Te Ching
dao sheng yi.
yi sheng er.
er sheng san.
san sheng wan wu.
wan wu fu yin er bao yang.
chong qi yi wei he.
ren zhi suo wu wei gu gua bu gu, er wang gong yi wei cheng.
gu wu huo sun zhi er yi.
huo yi zhi er sun.
ren zhi suo jiao, wo yi jiao zhi.
qiang liang zhe bu de qi si.
wu jiang yi wei jiao fu.
- Pinyin Romanization, Daodejing, Chapter 42
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters and English (includes a word by word key) from YellowBridge
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters, Pinyin Romanization, English and German by Dr. Hilmar Alquiros.
Laozi Daodejing: Chapters with Chinese characters, seal script, detailed word by word concordance, Pinyin (tone#), German, French and English.
Chinese and English Dictionary, MDGB
Chinese Character Dictionary
Dao De Jing Wade-Giles Concordance by Nina, Dao is Open
Dao De Jing English and Wade-Giles Concordance by Mike Garofalo
Tao Te Ching in Pinyin Romanization with Chinese characters, WuWei Foundation
Tao Te Ching in Pinyin Romanization
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters and English
Tao Te Ching: English translation, Word by Word Chinese and English, and Commentary, Center Tao by Carl Abbott
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters, English, Word by word analysis, Zhongwen
Tao Te Ching: The Definitive Edition Chinese characters, Wade-Giles Romanization, and a list of meanings for each character by Jonathan Star
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters: Big 5 Traditional and GB Simplified
Convert from Pinyin to Wade Giles to Yale Romanizations of Words and Terms: A Translation Tool from Qi Journal
Chinese Characters, Wade-Giles and Pinyin Romanizations, and 16 English Translations for Each Chapter of the Daodejing by Mike Garofalo.
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters, Pinyin and Wade Giles Romanization spellings, English; a word for word translation of the Guodian Laozi Dao De Jing Version.
Lao Zi's Dao De Jing: A Matrix Translation with Chinese Text by Bradford Hatcher.
"Nature first begets one thing.
The one thing begets another.
The two produce a third.
In this way, all things are begotten.
Why? Because all things are impregnated by two alternating tendencies, the tendency towards completion and the tendency towards initiation, which acting together, complement each other.
Most men dislike to be considered of no account, lowly, unworthy.
Yet intelligent leaders call themselves thus.
For people are admired for their humility and despised for their pride.
There are many other ways of illustrating what I am teaching: "Extremists reach untimely ends."
This saying may be taken as a good example."
- Translated by Archie J. Bahm, Chapter 42
Ripening Peaches: Taoist Studies and Practices By Mike Garofalo
Lifestyle Advice from Wise Persons
"The principle is not a thing. Call it zero.
The principle in action is the unity of creation. This unity is a single whole. Call it one.
Creation consists of pairs of opposites or polarities. Call these polarities two.
These polarities become creative when they interact. Their interaction is the third element. Call it three.
For example, a man and a woman are two. Their interaction, or intercourse, the third element makes babies. That is creative. That is how all creativity occurs.
The wise leader knows about pairs of opposites and their interactions. The leader knows how to be creative.
In order to lead, the leader learns to follow. In order to prosper, the leader learns to live simply. In both cases, it is the interaction that is creative.
Leading without following is sterile. Trying to become rich by accumulating more and more is a full-time career and not free at all.
Being one-sided always produces unexpected and paradoxical results. Being well-defended will not protect you; it will diminish your life and eventually kill you.
Exceptions to these examples of traditional wisdom are very hard to find."
- Translated by John Heider, 1985, Chapter 42
"The Way begot one,
And the one, two;
Then the two begot three
And three, all else.
All things bear the shade on their backs
And the sun in their arms;
By the blending of breath
From the sun and the shade,
Equilibrium comes to the world.
Orphaned, or needy, or desolate, these
Are conditions much feared and disliked;
Yet in public address, the king
And the nobles account themselves thus.
So a loss sometimes benefits one
Or a benefit proves to be loss.
What others have taught
I also shall teach:
If a violent man does not come
To a violent death,
I shall choose him to teach me."
- Translated by Raymond B. Blakney, 1955, Chapter 42
"When the Principle has emitted its virtue, the latter
begins to evolve according to two alternating modalities.
This evolution produces (or condenses) the median air (tenuous matter).
From tenuous matter, under the influence of the two modalities yin and yang, all sentient beings are produced.
Coming out from the yin (from strength) they pass to the yang (to the act), through the influence of the two modalities on matter.
What men dislike is being alone, unique, incapable, (in obscurity and abasement), and yet emperors and princes are designated by these terms, (which imply humility without debasement).
Beings diminish themselves by wanting to augment themselves, and they are augmented through diminishing themselves."
- Translated by Derek Bryce, 1999, Chapter 42
"The Tao formulated the One.
The One exhaled the Two.
The Two were parents of the Three.
The Three were parents of all things.
All things pass from Obscurity to Manifestation, inspired harmoniously by
the Breath of the Void.
Men do not like to be fatherless, virtueless, unworthy: yet rulers
describe themselves by these names.
Thus increase bringeth decrease to some, and decrease bringeth increase to others.
Others have taught thus; I consent to it. Violent men and strong die not by natural death.
This fact is the foundation of my law."
- Translated by Aleister Crowley, 1918, Chapter 42
Tao Te Ching Translated by Stephen Addiss and Stanley Lombardo
Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching Translated by John C. WuLao-Tzu and the Tao-Te-Ching Translated by Livia Kohn
Dao De Jing: The Book of the Way Translated by Moss Roberts
"Tao gives birth to One,
One gives birth to Two,
The Two gives birth to Three,
The Three gives birth to all universal things.
All universal things shoulder the Yin and embrace the Yang.
The Yin and Yang mingle and mix with each other to beget the harmony.
People distain the orphaned, widowed and worthless,
Yet they are the name by which rulers called themselves.
Therefore all things may increase when diminished,
And they may diminish when increased.
What people teach is "get rid of weakness and become strong,"
But what I teach is "get rid of the strong to become weak.
The violent and forceful do not die a natural death,"
I will begin my teaching just from this saying."
- Translated by He Xuezhi, Chapter 42
"One produced two; two produced three; three produced the ten thousand things.
The ten thousand things turn away from the dark (Yin) and embrace the light (Yang); the vapours of the void blend them harmoniously.
What people loathe is to be "orphaned", "lonely", "destitute", and yet kings and dukes call themselves thus.
For things are sometimes increased by decrease, and decreased by increase.
What others have taught I also teach; that men of violence will not reach their natural death, I shall be the father of that doctrine."
- Translated by Jan J. L. Duyvendak, 1954, Chapter 42
Walking the Way: 81 Zen Encounters with the Tao Te Ching by Robert Meikyo Rosenbaum
The Tao of Zen by Ray Grigg
Tao Te Ching: Zen Teachings on the Taoist Classic by Takuan Soho
Buddhism and Taoism Face to Face: Scripture, Ritual, and Iconographic Exchange in Medieval China by Christine Mollier
"In Tao is Unity of Life,
In Unity is Duality of Life,
In Duality is Trinity of Life,
In Trinity all beings have life.
All beings shun the principle of Inertia,
They hold to the principle of Life.
They are brought into deep harmony by the Breath of the Deep.
That which men dislike is to be called orphans, solitary, wheels without naves;
Yet princes and rulers may thus be named.
Therefore some are increased by being diminished,
And some are diminished by being increased.
That which men have taught I also shall teach:
"He who is strong and violent shall not meet with easy death."
I shall in this way teach fundamentals."
- Translated by Isabella Mears, 1916, Chapter 42
"The Tao gave birth to One.
The One gave birth to Two.
The Two gave birth to Three.
The Three gave birth to all of creation.
All things carry Yin
yet embrace Yang.
They blend their life breaths
in order to produce harmony.
People despise being orphaned, widowed and poor.
But the noble ones take these as their titles.
In losing, much is gained,
and in gaining, much is lost.
What others teach I too will teach:
"The strong and violent will not die a natural death.""
- Translated by John H. McDonald, 1996, Chapter 42
Further Teachings of Lao-Tzu: Understanding the Mysteries (Wen Tzu) By Thomas Cleary
The Lunar Tao: Meditations in Harmony with the Seasons By Deng Ming-DaoAwakening to the Tao By Lui I-Ming (1780) and translated by Thomas Cleary
Ripening Peaches: Taoist Studies and Practices By Mike Garofalo
Zhuangzi: The Essential Writings with Selections from Traditional Commentaries Translation and commentary by Brook ZiporynThe Inner Chapters of Chuang Tzu (Zhuangzi) Translated by A. C. Graham
"The Tao produced One; One produced Two;
Two produced Three; Three produced All.
All the myriad things bear the yin with darkened pall,
They embrace the yang which lights the coming view,
And between the yin that was, and the yang that is to be,
The immaterial breath makes harmony.
Things that men dislike are to be orphans, lonely men,
Unworthy, incomplete, and yet these very things
Are taken for their titles by princes and by kings;
So it is sometimes that losing gains again,
And sometimes that gaining loses in its turn.
I am teaching what, by others taught, I learn;
The violent and aggressive a good death do not die,
And the father of this teaching, it is I."
- Translated by Isaac Winter Hesysinger, 1903, Chapter 42
of Tao, One is born;
Out of One, Two;
Out of Two, Three;
Out of Three, the created universe.
The created universe carries the yin at its back
and the yang in front;
Through the union of the pervading principles it
be "orphaned," "lonely" and "unworthy" is what men hate most.
Yet the princes and dukes call themselves by such names.
For sometimes things are benefited by being taken away from,
And suffer by being added to.
have taught this maxim,
Which I shall teach also:
"The violent man shall die a violent death."
This I shall regard as my spiritual teacher."
- Translated by Lin Yutang, 1955, Chapter 42
Tao Te Ching: An Illustrated Journey Translated by Stephen Mitchell
Tao Te Ching Translated by David Hinton
The Book of Tao: Tao Te Ching - The Tao and Its Characteristics Translated by James Legge
Ripening Peaches: Taoist Studies and Practices
Taoism: Growth of a Religion By Isabelle Robinet
Zhuangzi (Chuang Tsu), Daoist Scripture: Bibliography, Links, Resources, Quotations, Notes
Zhuangzi: Basic Writings Translated by Burton Watson
Zhuangzi Speaks: The Music of Nature An illustrated comic by Chih-chung Ts'ai
Lifestyle Advice from Wise Persons
"Tao begets one; one begets two; two begets three; three begets all
All things are backed by the Shade, (yin) and faced by the light (yang),
and harmonized by the immaterial Breath (ch'i).
What others teach, I also teach:
'The daring and violent do not die a natural death.'
This maxim I shall regard as my instructor."
- Translated by Ch'u Ta-Kao, 1904, Chapter 42
"Tao emaned the One; the one emaned the Two; and the two emaned the Three.
From the Three all things have proceeded.
All things are backed by the Unmanifest and faced by the Manifest.
That which unites them is the immaterial breath.
Orphanage, isolation, and a chariot without wheels are shunned by the people; but kings and great men appropriate these names to themselves.
For things increase by being deprived; and being added to they are diminished.
That which people teach by their actions I make use of to instruct them.
Those who are violent and headstrong, for example, do not die a natural death.
They teach a good lesson, and so I make use of them."
- Translated by Walter Gorn Old, 1904, Chapter 42
Language Versions of the Tao Te Ching (Daodejing)
Tao Te Ching en Español
Lao Tsé Tao Te Ching Traducido al español por Anton Teplyy
Tao Te Ching Traducido por Stephen Mitchell, versión española
Tao Te Ching Traducido al español por el Padre Carmelo Elorduy
Tao Te Ching en Español
Lao Tzu-The Eternal Tao Te Ching Traducido al español por Yuanxiang Xu y Yongjian Yin
Ripening Peaches: Taoist Studies and Practices By Mike Garofalo Maduración Duraznos: Estudios y Prácticas Taoístas por Mike Garofalo
Tao Te Ching - Wikisource
Tao Te Ching Traducido al español por William Scott Wilson.
Lao Tzu - Tao Te Ching Traducido al español por Javier Cruz
Tao te king Translated by John C. H. Wu, , versión española
Daodejing Español, Inglés, y Chino Versiones Lingüísticas de la Daodejing
"El Tao engendra al Uno,
El Uno engendra al Dos,
El Dos engendra al Tres.
El Tres engendra a los diez mil seres.
Los diez mil seres llevan el Yin en sus espaldas y el Yang en sus frentes,
Y la armonía de su Chi depende del equilibrio de estas dos fuerzas.
Los hombres aborrecen la soledad, la pobreza, la indignidad,
y estos nombres los usan los soberanos para sus títulos.
Porque unos ganan perdiendo, y otros pierden ganando.
Yo enseño lo que otros han enseñado:
"el hombre que vive violentamente, morirá violentamente".
Esta es la guía de mi enseñanza."
- Translation from Wikisource, 2013, Capitulo 42
Todo produce el Uno; el Uno produce el dos; el dos produce
el tres produce todas las cosas.
Todas las cosas van desde la Sombra (Yin) hacia la Luz (Yang).
Y son armonizadas por el soplo divino (Chi).
Lo que otros enseñan, yo también enseño:
"El osado y el vilento no morirán de muerte natural."
Consideraré esta (máxima) como mi adoctrinador."
- Translated from Chinese into English by Ch'u Ta-Kao, Translated from English into Spanish by Caridad Diaz Faes,
Next Chapter of the Tao Te Ching #43
Previous Chapter of the Tao Te Ching #41
Chapter and Thematic Index to the Tao Te Ching
Tao Te Ching
Commentary, Interpretations, Research Tools, Resources
Daodejing by Laozi: Chapters with Chinese characters, seal script, detailed word by word concordance, Pinyin (tone#), German, French and English. This is an outstanding resource for serious students of the Tao Te Ching.
Yellow Bridge Dao De Jing Comparison Table Provides side by side comparisons of translations of the Tao Te Ching by James Legge, D. T. Suzuki, and Dwight Goddard. Chinese characters for each paragraph in the Chapter are on the left; place your cursor over the Chinese characters to see the Pinyin Romanization of the Chinese character and a list of meanings.
Center Tao. Includes a brief commentary on each Chapter. A keyword glossary for each chapter is provided.
Tao Te Ching Commentaries - Google Search
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters, Pinyin Romanization, English and German by Dr. Hilmar Alquiros.
Translators' Index, Tao Te Ching Translators Sorted Alphabetically by Translator, Links to Books and Online Versions
Taoism and the Tao Te Ching: Bibliography, Resources, Links
Spanish Language Translations of the Tao Te Ching, Daodejing en Español
Concordance to the Daodejing
The Tao of Zen. By Ray Grigg. Tuttle, 2012, 256 pages. Argues for the view that Zen is best characterized a version of philosophical Taoism (i.e., Laozi and Zhuangzi) and not Mahayana Buddhism.
Das Tao Te King von Lao Tse The largest collection of very nicely formatted complete versions of the Tao Te Ching. The collection includes 209 complete versions in 27 languages, plus 28 Chinese versions. There are 112 English language versions of the Tao Te Ching available at this website. A variety of search methods and comparison methods are provided, as well a a detailed index. Offline on January 30, 2014.
Tao Te Ching: The Definitive Edition By Jonathan Star. Translation, commentary and research tools. New York, Jeremy P. Tarcher, Penguin, 2001. Concordance, tables, appendices, 349 pages. A new rendition of the Tao Te Ching is provided, then a verbatim translation with extensive notes. Detailed tables for each verse provide line number, all the Chinese characters, Wade-Giles Romanization, and a list of meanings for each character. An excellent print reference tool!
Two Visions of the Way: A Study of the Wang Pi and the Ho-Shang Kung Commentaries on the Lao-Tzu. By Professor by Alan Kam-Leung Chan. SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture. State University of New York Press, 1991. Index, bibliography, glossary, notes, 314 pages. ISBN: 0791404560.
Chinese Reading of the Daodejing Wang Bi's Commentary on the Laozi with Critical Text and Translation. By Professor Rudolf G. Wagner. A SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture. English and Mandarin Chinese Edition. State University of New York Press; Bilingual edition (October 2003). 540 pages. ISBN: 978-0791451823. Wang Bi (Wang Pi, Fusi), 226-249 CE, Commentary on the Tao Te Ching.
Chapter 42 in the Rambling Taoist Commentaries by Trey Smith. The Rambling Taoists are Trey Smith and Scott Bradley.
Valley Spirit, Gu Shen, Concept, Chapter 6
Lao-tzu's Taoteching Translated by Red Pine (Bill Porter). Includes many brief selected commentaries for each Chapter draw from commentaries in the past 2,000 years. Provides a verbatim translation and shows the text in Chinese characters. San Francisco, Mercury House, 1996, Second Edition, 184 pages. An invaluable resource for commentaries.
Reading Lao Tzu: A Companion to the Tao Te Ching with a New Translation By Ha Poong Kim. Xlibris, 2003, 198 pages.
Chapter 42, Line by Line Comparisons of 27 Translations of the Tao Te Ching Compiled by the St. Xenophon Wayist Seminary
Dao De Jing: A Philosophical Translation By Roger T. Ames and David T. Hall. Ballantine, 2003, 256 pages.
Thematic Index to the 81 Chapters of the Tao Te Ching
Lao Tzu: Te-Tao Ching - A New Translation Based on the Recently Discovered Ma-wang-tui Texts (Classics of Ancient China) Translated with and introduction and detailed exposition and commentary by Professor Robert G. Henricks. New York, Ballantine Books, 1992. Includes Chinese characters for each chapter. Bibliography, detailed notes, 282 pages.
Lieh-Tzu: A Taoist Guide to Practical Living. Translated by Eva Wong. Lieh-Tzu was writing around 450 BCE. Boston, Shambhala, 2001. Introduction, 246 pages.
Revealing the Tao Te Ching: In Depth Commentaries on an Ancient Classic. By Hu Huezhi. Edited by Jesse Lee Parker. Seven Star Communications, 2006. 240 pages.
Cloud Hands Blog Mike Garofalo writes about Taoism, Gardening, Taijiquan, Walking, Mysticism, Qigong, and the Eight Ways.
Tao Te Ching: A New Translation and Commentary. By Ellen Chen. Paragon House, 1998. Detailed glossary, index, bibliography, notes, 274 pages.
The Tao and Method: A Reasoned Approach to the Tao Te Ching. By Michael Lafargue. New York, SUNY Press, 1994. 640 pages. Detailed index, bibliography, notes, and tables. An essential research tool.
The Whole Heart of Tao: The Complete Teachings From the Oral Tradition of Lao Tzu. By John Bright-Fey. Crane Hill Publishers, 2006. 376 pages.
Gushen Grove Notebooks for the Tao Te Ching
This webpage was last modified or updated on October 31, 2014.
This webpage was first distributed online on April 23, 2011.
Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu, Zhuang Zhou, Master Chuang) 369—286 BCE
The Tao Te Ching (Dao De Jing) by Lao Tzu (Laozi) circa 500 BCE