Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo, Green Way Research, Valley Spirit Center, Gushen Grove Notebooks, Red Bluff, California
Chapter 12 Chapter 14 Index to All the Chapters Taoism Cloud Hands Blog
English Chinese Spanish
English and Chinese (Wade-Giles Romanization) Terms: Loathing, Shame, Favor, Disgrace, Honor or Praise (ch'ung), Dishonor or Blame (ju), Body, Self-Love, Care of Body, Dread or Fear or Anxiety (ching), Humiliation, Troubles or Suffering or Misfortune (haun), Self or Body (shên), Fear, Courage, Sage, Love, Death, Fearless, Unworried, Ailments, Ruling, Governing, Leadership, Self-Respect, Surprise, Dedication, Care, Esteem or Respect (kuei), Lowly or Inferior (hsia), No Body No Heartaches, Great (ta), Obtain or Receive (tê), Heaven (t'ien), Trusted (chi), 厭恥
Términos en Español: Asco, Vrgüenza, Favor, Honor, Alabanza, Deshonra, Culpa, Auto-Amor, Cuidado del Cuerpo, Miedo, Ansiedad, Humillación, Sufrimiento, Desgracia, Ser, Cuerpo, Valor, Sabio, Amor, Muerte, Despreocupado, Dolencias, Gobierno, Administración, Liderazgo, Sorpresa, Dedicación, Atención, Estima, Respeto, Inferior, Obtener, Recibir, Cielo, Confianza.
"Favor and disgrace would seem equally to be feared;
Honor and great calamity, to be regarded as personal conditions of the same kind.
What is meant by speaking thus of favor and disgrace?
Disgrace is being in a low position after the enjoyment of favor.
The getting that favor leads to the apprehension of losing it, and the losing it leads to the fear of still greater calamity.
This is what is meant by saying that favor and disgrace would seem equally to be feared.
And what is meant by saying that honor and great calamity are to be similarly regarded as personal conditions?
What makes me liable to great calamity is my having the body which I call myself;
If I had not the body, what great calamity could come to me?
Therefore he who would administer the kingdom, honoring it as he honors his own person, may be employed to govern it,
And he who would administer it with the love which he bears to his own person may be entrusted with it."
- Translated by James Legge, 1891, Chapter 13
" "Favor, like disgrace
Brings trouble with it;
High rank, like self,
Involves acute distress."
What does that mean, to say
That "favor, like disgrace
Brings trouble with it"?
When favor is bestowed
On one of low degree,
Trouble will come with it.
The loss of favor too
Means trouble for that man.
This, then, is what is meant
By "favor, like disgrace
Brings trouble with it."
What does it mean, to say
That "rank, like self,
Involves acute distress"?
I suffer most because
Of me and selfishness.
If I were selfless, then
What suffering would I bear?
In governing the world,
Let rule entrusted be
To him who treats his rank
As if it were his soul;
World sovereignty can be
Committed to that man
Who loves all people
As he loves himself."
- Translated by Raymond Blakney, 1955, Chapter 13
"Favor bodes disgrace; it is like trembling.
Rank bodes great heartache.
It is like the body.
What does 'Favor bodes disgrace; it is like trembling' mean?
Its acquisition causes trembling, its loss causes trembling.
This is what is meant by 'Favor bodes disgrace; it is like trembling.'
What does 'Rank bodes great heartache, it is like the body' mean?
I suffer great heartache because I have a body.
When I have no body, what heartache remains?
Therefore who administers the empire as he takes care of his body can be entrusted with the empire."
- Translated by D. T. Suzuki and Paul Carus, 1913, Chapter 13
Cloud Hands Blog
"Dread glory as you dread shame.
Prize great calamity as you prize your body.
What does this mean:
"Dread glory as you dread shame"?
Glory comes from below.
Obtain it, you are afraid of shame;
Lose it, you are still afraid of shame.
That is why it is said;
"Dread glory as you dread shame."
What does this mean:
"Prize great calamity as you prize your own body"?
We who meet with great calamities, meet them because we have a body.
If we had not a body what calamity could reach us?
Therefore he who honours the kingdom as his body can govern the kingdom.
He who loves the kingdom as his own body can be trusted with the kingdom."
- Translated by Isabella Mears, 1916, Chapter 13
"Favor and disgrace are alike to be feared, just as too
great care or anxiety are bad for the body.
Why are favor and disgrace alike to be feared?
To be favored is humiliating; to obtain it is as much to be dreaded as to lose it.
To lose favor is to be in disgrace and of course is to be dreaded.
Why are excessive care and great anxiety alike bad for one?
The very reason I have anxiety is because I have a body.
If I have not body why would I be anxious?
Therefore if he who administers the empire, esteems it as his own body, then he is worthy to be trusted with the empire."
- Translated by Dwight Goddard and Henri Borel, 1919, Chapter 13
- Chinese characters, Tao Te Ching, Chapter 13
ch'ung ju jo ching.
kuei ta huan jo shên.
ho wei ch'ung ju jo ching.
ch'ung wei hsia.
tê chih jo ching.
shih chih jo ching shih wei ch'ung ju jo ching.
ho wei kuei ta huan jo.
shên wu so yi yu ta huan chê wei wu yu shên.
chi wu wu shên.
wu yu ho huan.
ku kuei yi shên wei t'ien hsia chê k'o chi t'ien hsia.
ai yi shên wei t'ien hsia, chê k'o t'o t'ien hsia.
- Wade-Giles Romanization, Tao Te Ching, Chapter 13
Audio Version in Chinese of Chapter 13 of the Tao Te Ching
chong ru ruo jing. gui da huan ruo shen. he wei chong ru ruo jing. chong wei xia. de zhi ruo jing. shi zhi ruo jing shi wei chong ru ruo jing. he wei gui da huan ruo. shen wu suo yi you da huan zhe wei wu you shen. ji wu wu shen. wu you he huan. gu gui yi shen wei tian xia ruo ke ji tian xia. ai yi shen wei tian xia, ruo ke tuo tian xia. - Pinyin Romanization, Daodejing, Chapter 13
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters and English (includes a word by word key) from YellowBridge
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters, Pinyin Romanization, English and German by Dr. Hilmar Alquiros
Laozi Daodejing: Chapters with Chinese characters, seal script, detailed word by word concordance, Pinyin, German, French and English
Chinese and English Dictionary, MDGB
Chinese Character Dictionary
Dao De Jing Wade-Giles Concordance by Nina, Dao is Open
Dao De Jing English and Wade-Giles Concordance by Mike Garofalo
Tao Te Ching in Pinyin Romanization with Chinese characters, WuWei Foundation
Tao Te Ching in Pinyin Romanization
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters and English
Tao Te Ching: English translation, Word by Word Chinese and English, and Commentary from Center Tao by Carl Abbott
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters, English, Word by word analysis, Zhongwen
Tao Te Ching: The Definitive Edition Chinese characters, Wade-Giles Romanization, and a list of meanings for each character by Jonathan Star
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters: Big 5 Traditional and GB Simplified
Convert from Pinyin to Wade Giles to Yale Romanizations of Words and Terms: A Translation Tool from Qi Journal
Chinese Characters, Wade-Giles and Pinyin Romanizations, and 16 English Translations for Each Chapter of the Daodejing by Mike Garofalo
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters, Pinyin and Wade Giles Romanization spellings, English; a word for word translation of the Guodian Laozi Version
Lao Zi's Dao De Jing: A Matrix Translation with Chinese Text by Bradford Hatcher
"Favor and disfavor
have been called equal worries,
Success and failure have been called equal ailments.
How can favor and disfavor be called equal worries?
Because winning favor burdens a man
With the fear of losing it.
How can success and failure be called equal ailments?
Because a man thinks of the personal body as self.
When he no longer thinks of the personal body as self
Neither failure nor success can ail him.
One who knows his lot to be the lot of all other men
Is a safe man to guide them,
One who recognizes all men as members of his own body
Is a sound man to guard them."
- Translated by Witter Bynner, 1944, Chapter 13
Ripening Peaches: Taoist Studies and Practices By Mike Garofalo
"Favor and disgrace are things that startle;
High rank is, like one's body, a source of great trouble.
What is meant by saying favor and disgrace are things that startle?
Favor when it is bestowed on a subject serves to startle as much as when it is withdrawn.
This is what is meant by saying that favor and disgrace are things that startle.
What is meant by saying that high rank is, like one's body, a source of great trouble?
The reason I have great trouble is that I have a body.
When I no longer have a body, what trouble have I?
Hence he who values his body more than dominion over the empire can be entrusted with the empire.
He who loves his body more than dominion over the empire can be given the custody of the empire."
- Translated by D. C. Lau, 1963, Chapter 13
"Success is as dangerous as failure,
and we are often our own worst enemy.
What does it mean that success is as dangerous as failure?
He who is superior is also someone's subordinate.
Receiving favor and losing it both cause alarm.
That is what is meant by success is as dangerous as failure.
What does it mean that we are often our own worst enemy?
The reason I have an enemy is because I have a "self".
If I no longer had a "self", I would no longer have an enemy.
Love the whole world as if it were your self;
then you will truly care for all things."
- Translated by John H. McDonald, 1996, Chapter 13
"Accept humiliation as
Value great misfortune as your own self.
What do I mean by "Accept humiliation as a surprise"?
When you are humble
Attainment is a surprise
And so is loss.
That's why I say, "Accept humiliation as a surprise."
What do I mean by "Value great misfortune as your own self"?
If I have no self, how could I experience misfortune?
Therefore, if you dedicate your life for the benefit of the world,
You can rely on the world.
If you love dedicating yourself in this way,
You can be entrusted with the world."
- Translated by Charles Muller, 1891, Chapter 13
"Both favor and disgrace bring fear.
Great trouble comes from having a body.
is meant by:
"Both favor and disgrace bring fear"?
Favor leads to a fear of losing it and
disgrace leads to a fear of greater trouble.
is meant by:
"Great trouble comes from having a body"?
The reason you have trouble is that
you are self-conscious.
No trouble can befall a self-free person.
surrender your self-interest.
Love others as much as you love yourself.
Then you can be entrusted with all things under heaven."
- Translated by Tolbert McCarroll, 1982, Chapter 13
Tao Te Ching Translated by Stephen Addiss and Stanley Lombardo
Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching Translated by John C. WuLao-Tzu and the Tao-Te-Ching Translated by Livia Kohn
Dao De Jing: The Book of the Way Translated by Moss Roberts
and disgrace cause one dismay;
What we value and what we fear are within our Self."
What does this mean:
"Favor and disgrace cause one dismay?"
Those who receive a favor from above
Are dismayed when they receive it,
And dismayed when they lose it.
What does this mean:
"What we value and what we fear are within our Self?"
We have fears because we have a self.
When we do not regard that self as self,
What have we to fear?
Therefore he who values the world as his self
May then be entrusted with the government of the world;
And he who loves the world as his self -
The world may then be entrusted to his care."
- Translated by Lin Yutang, 1955, Chapter 13
"Equally fear favour and disgrace.
Regard a great calamity as you do your own body.
What is meant by equally fear favour and grace?
Favour should be disparaged.
Gained or lost it arouses apprehension.
Hence it is said, equally fear favour and disgrace.
What is meant by regard a great calamity as you do your own body?
Why have I any sense of misfortune?
Because I am conscious of myself.
Were I not conscious of my body, what distresses would I have?
Therefore, it is only they who value their persons because of their obligation, who may be entrusted with the empire.
It is only they who love themselves on account of their responsibilities, who may be charged with the care of the state."
- Translated by C. Spurgeon Medhurst, 1905, Chapter 13
Walking the Way: 81 Zen Encounters with the Tao Te Ching by Robert Meikyo Rosenbaum
The Tao of Zen by Ray Grigg
Tao Te Ching: Zen Teachings on the Taoist Classic by Takuan Soho
Buddhism and Taoism Face to Face: Scripture, Ritual, and Iconographic Exchange in Medieval China by Christine Mollier
"Accept honors and disgraces as surprises,
Treasure great misfortunes as the body.
Why say: "Accept honors and disgraces as surprises"?
Honors elevate (shang),
Disgraces depress (hsia).
One receives them surprised,
Loses them surprised.
Thus: "Accept honors and disgraces as surprises."
Why say: "Treasure great misfortunes as the body"?
I have great misfortunes,
Because I have a body.
If I don't have a body,
What misfortunes do I have?
Therefore treasure the body as the world,
As if the body can be entrusted to the world.
Love the body as the world,
As if the body can be entrusted to the world."
- Translated by Ellen Marie Chen, 2000, Chapter 13
"Favour and disgrace are both like goads; value great disasters as your body.
What is the meaning of: "Favour and disgrace are both like goads"?
Favour is high, disgrace is low; to attain is like a goad; to fail is like a god.
That is the meaning of: "Favour and disgrace are both like goads".
What is the meaning of: "value great disasters as your body"?
The reason that I suffer great disasters, is that I have a body.
As soon as I have no body, what disaster can I suffer?
Therefore, he who rules All-under-heaven as he values his own body, may well be entrusted with All-under-heaven;
He who rules All-under-heaven as he loves his body, may well be entrusted with All-under-heaven."
- Translated by Jan J. L. Duyvendak, 1954, Chapter 13
Further Teachings of Lao-Tzu: Understanding the Mysteries (Wen Tzu) Translated by Thomas Cleary
The Lunar Tao: Meditations in Harmony with the Seasons By Deng Ming-DaoAwakening to the Tao By Lui I-Ming (1780) and translated by Thomas Cleary
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Zhuangzi: The Essential Writings with Selections from Traditional Commentaries Translation and commentary by Brook ZiporynThe Inner Chapters of Chuang Tzu (Zhuangzi) Translated by A. C. Graham
"Like fear are favor and disgrace,
On others they depend for place,
But honor and great sacrifice
To one's own body we can trace.
Like favor and disgrace is fear,
Why should they thus akin appear?
Favor makes one stoop and cringe,
And, when obtained, 'tis held in fear
And losing it, remains disgrace,
And fear again presents its face,
And that is why, with fear 'tis said
Disgrace and favor have their place.
But honor and great sacrifice,
Why do these two appear in guise
Of body? Just because the self
Of my own body these comprise.
They make me have a body, then,
To know my honor, feel my pain,
And when I count it nothingness
What sacrifice can I sustain?
When one, for honor's self alone,
Imperial rule would make his own,
He can thereby be safely used
To rule the realm and hold the throne.
When one, for love, himself will share,
And all self-sacrifice will bear,
The rule of all beneath the sky
Can be entrusted to his care."
- Translated by Isaac Winter Heysinger, 1903, Chapter 13
"Honour and shame are the same as fear.
Fortune and disaster are the same as the person.
What is said of honour and shame is this: shame is abasement, which is feared whether is be absent or present.
So dignity and shame are inseparable from the fear which both occasion.
What is said of fortune and disaster is this: fortune and disaster are things which befall the person.
So without personality how should I suffer disaster or the reverse?
Therefore by the accident of good fortune a man may rule the world for a time.
But by virtue of love he may rule the world for ever."
- Translated by Walter Gorn Old, 1904, Chapter 13
Tao Te Ching: An Illustrated Journey Translated by Stephen Mitchell
Tao Te Ching Translated by David Hinton
The Book of Tao: Tao Te Ching - The Tao and Its Characteristics Translated by James Legge
Ripening Peaches: Taoist Studies and Practices
Taoism: Growth of a Religion By Isabelle Robinet
Zhuangzi (Chuang Tsu), Daoist Scripture: Bibliography, Links, Resources, Quotations, Notes
Zhuangzi: Basic Writings Translated by Burton Watson
Zhuangzi Speaks: The Music of Nature An illustrated comic by Chih-chung Ts'ai
Lifestyle Advice from Wise Persons
"Favour and disgrace are alike a cause of
Honours bring great calamity upon the body.
What is it that one calls favour and disgrace?
Disgrace implies downfall; the loss of one and subjection to the other, are equally causes of apprehension.
Therefore it may be said that favour and disgrace both give rise to fear.
And what is meant by saying that honours bring calamity upon the body?
The calamities which come upon me are the consequence of my possessing a body; had I none, what calamities could I incur?
Wherefore, if the honours which come upon me personally are on account of my position as a ruler, then the whole Empire will subject itself to me; and those who cultivate personal benevolence in ruling may commit themselves to the Empire for ever."
- Translated by Frederic Henry Balfour, 1884, Chapter 13
"The ordinary man seeks honour, not dishonour, cherishing success and abominating failure, loving life, whilst fearing death. The sage does not recognize these things, so lives his life quite simply.
The ordinary man seeks to make himself the centre of his universe; the universe of the sage is at his centre. He loves the world, and thus remains unmoved by things with which others are concerned. He acts with humility, is neither moved nor moving, and can therefore be trusted in caring for all things." - Translated by Stan Rosenthal, 1984, Chapter 13
Language Versions of the Tao Te Ching (Daodejing)
Tao Te Ching en Español
Lao Tsé Tao Te Ching Traducido al español por Anton Teplyy
Tao Te Ching Traducido por Stephen Mitchell, versión española
Tao Te Ching Traducido al español por el Padre Carmelo Elorduy
Tao Te Ching en Español
Lao Tzu-The Eternal Tao Te Ching Traducido al español por Yuanxiang Xu y Yongjian Yin
Ripening Peaches: Taoist Studies and Practices By Mike Garofalo Maduración Duraznos: Estudios y Prácticas Taoístas por Mike Garofalo
Tao Te Ching - Wikisource
Tao Te Ching Traducido al español por William Scott Wilson.
Lao Tzu - Tao Te Ching Traducido al español por Javier Cruz
Tao te king Translated by John C. H. Wu, , versión española
Daodejing Español, Inglés, y Chino Versiones Lingüísticas de la Daodejing
"El favor y la desgracia inquietan por igual". "La fortuna es un gran dolor como nuestro cuerpo". ¿Qué quiere decir: favor y desgracia inquietan por igual ? El favor eleva y la desgracia abate. Conseguir el favor es la inquietud. Perderlo es la inquietud. Este es el sentido de «favor y desgracia inquietan por igual» ¿Qué quiere decir: la fortuna es un gran dolor como nuestro cuerpo? La causa por la que padezco dolor es mi propio cuerpo. Si no lo tuviese, ¿qué dolor podría sentir? Por esto, quien estime al mundo igual a la fortuna de su propio cuerpo, puede gobernar el mundo. Quien ame al mundo como a su propio cuerpo, se le puede confiar el mundo." - Translation from Wikisource, 2013, Tao Te Ching, Capítulo 13
"Los santos decían: "Alabanzas y culpas causan ansiedad;
El objeto de la esperanza y el miedo está en tu interior".
"Alabanzas y culpas causan ansiedad"
Puesto que esperas o temes recibirlas o perderlas.
"El objeto de la esperanza y el miedo está en tu interior"
Pues, sin un Ego, no pueden afectarte la fortuna o el desastre.
El que observa al Mundo como se observa a sí mismo es capaz de controlar el Mundo;
Pero el que ama al Mundo como se ama a sí mismo es capaz de dirigir el Mundo."
- Translated by Antonio Rivas Gonzálvez, 1998, Tao Te Ching, Capítulo 13
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Chapter and Thematic Index to the Tao Te Ching
Tao Te Ching
Commentary, Interpretations, Research Tools, Resources
Daodejing by Laozi: Chapters with Chinese characters, seal script, detailed word by word concordance, Pinyin (tone#), German, French and English. This is an outstanding resource for serious students of the Tao Te Ching.
Yellow Bridge Dao De Jing Comparison Table Provides side by side comparisons of translations of the Tao Te Ching by James Legge, D. T. Suzuki, and Dwight Goddard. Chinese characters for each paragraph in the Chapter are on the left; place your cursor over the Chinese characters to see the Hanyu Pinyin (1982) Romanization of the Chinese character and a list of meanings.
Center Tao. Includes a brief commentary on each Chapter. A keyword glossary for each chapter is provided.
Tao Te Ching Commentaries - Google Search
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters, Hanyu Pinyin (1982) Romanization, English and German by Dr. Hilmar Alquiros.
Translators' Index, Tao Te Ching Translators Sorted Alphabetically by Translator, Links to Books and Online Versions
Taoism and the Tao Te Ching: Bibliography, Resources, Links
Spanish Language Translations of the Tao Te Ching, Daodejing en Español
Concordance to the Daodejing
Tao Te Ching in Chinese characters, Wade-Giles (1892) and Hanyu Pinyin (1982) Romanization spellings, English; a word for word translation of the Guodian Laozi Dao De Jing Version. From the Dao is Open website.
Tao Te Ching: The Definitive Edition By Jonathan Star. Translation, commentary and research tools. New York, Jeremy P. Tarcher, Penguin, 2001. Concordance, tables, appendices, 349 pages. A new rendition of the Tao Te Ching is provided, then a verbatim translation with extensive notes. Detailed tables for each verse provide line number, all the Chinese characters, Wade-Giles (1892) Romanization, and a list of meanings for each character. An excellent print reference tool!
Two Visions of the Way: A Study of the Wang Pi and the Ho-Shang Kung Commentaries on the Lao-Tzu. By Professor by Alan Kam-Leung Chan. SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture. State University of New York Press, 1991. Index, bibliography, glossary, notes, 314 pages. ISBN: 0791404560.
Chinese Reading of the Daodejing Wang Bi's Commentary on the Laozi with Critical Text and Translation. By Professor Rudolf G. Wagner. A SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture. English and Mandarin Chinese Edition. State University of New York Press; Bilingual edition (October 2003). 540 pages. ISBN: 978-0791451823. Wang Bi (Wang Pi, Fusi), 226-249 CE, Commentary on the Tao Te Ching.
Chapter 13 in the Rambling Taoist Commentaries by Trey Smith. The Rambling Taoists are Trey Smith and Scott Bradley.
Valley Spirit, Gu Shen, Concept, Chapter 6
Das Tao Te King von Lao Tse The largest collection of very nicely formatted complete versions of the Tao Te Ching. The collection includes 209 complete versions in 27 languages, plus 28 Chinese versions. There are 112 English language versions of the Tao Te Ching available at this website. A variety of search methods and comparison methods are provided, as well a a detailed index. Offline as of 25 May 2013.
Tao Te Ching English Translations from Terebess Asia Online. Over 30 translations.
Lao-tzu's Taoteching Translated by Red Pine (Bill Porter). Includes many brief selected commentaries for each Chapter draw from commentaries in the past 2,000 years. Provides a verbatim translation and shows the text in Chinese characters. San Francisco, Mercury House, 1996, Second Edition, 184 pages. An invaluable resource for commentaries.
Reading Lao Tzu: A Companion to the Tao Te Ching with a New Translation By Ha Poong Kim. Xlibris, 2003, 198 pages.
Chapter 13, Line by Line Comparisons of 27 Translations of the Tao Te Ching Compiled by the St. Xenophon Wayist Seminary
Dao De Jing: A Philosophical Translation By Roger T. Ames and David T. Hall. Ballantine, 2003, 256 pages.
Thematic Index to the 81 Chapters of the Tao Te Ching
Lao Tzu: Te-Tao Ching - A New Translation Based on the Recently Discovered Ma-wang-tui Texts (Classics of Ancient China) Translated with and introduction and detailed exposition and commentary by Professor Robert G. Henricks. New York, Ballantine Books, 1992. Includes Chinese characters for each chapter. Bibliography, detailed notes, 282 pages.
Lieh-Tzu: A Taoist Guide to Practical Living. Translated by Eva Wong. Lieh-Tzu was writing around 450 BCE. Boston, Shambhala, 2001. Introduction, 246 pages.
Revealing the Tao Te Ching: In-depth Commentaries on an Ancient Classic. By Hu Huezhi. Edited by Jesse Lee Parker. Seven Star Communications, 2006. 240 pages.
Cloud Hands Blog Mike Garofalo writes about Taoism, Gardening, Taijiquan, Walking, Mysticism, Qigong, and the Eight Ways.
Tao Te Ching: A New Translation and Commentary. By Ellen Chen. Paragon House, 1998. Detailed glossary, index, bibliography, notes, 274 pages.
The Tao and Method: A Reasoned Approach to the Tao Te Ching. By Michael Lafargue. New York, SUNY Press, 1994. 640 pages. Detailed index, bibliography, notes, and tables. An essential research tool.
The Whole Heart of Tao: The Complete Teachings From the Oral Tradition of Lao Tzu. By John Bright-Fey. Crane Hill Publishers, 2006. 376 pages.
Gushen Grove Notebooks for the Tao Te Ching
This webpage was last modified or updated on June 22, 2014.
This webpage was first distributed online on February 7, 2011.
Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu, Zhuang Zhou, Master Chuang) 369—286 BCE
The Tao Te Ching (Dao De Jing) by Lao Tzu (Laozi) circa 500 BCE
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