Animal Frolic
Frolics Qigong: The Monkey
An Ancient Chinese E
xercise Regimen for Nourishing Life (Yangsheng)
For Fitness, Fun, Increased Vitality, Liveliness, Good Health and Longevity

Qigong (Chi Kung) Internal Energy Cultivation Method, Chinese Yoga, Chinese Healing Exercises (Daoyin)
Wu Qin Xi: Five Animal Frolics

Introduction     Bibliography     Links     Movement Names     Lessons     Quotations     Monkeys     Correspondences

Research by 
Michael P. Garofalo

September 12, 2010


Valley Spirit Qigong, Green Way Research, Red Bluff, California, 2010
By Michael P. Garofalo, M.S., All Rights Reserved.



The Monkey Frolic will be completed by December 1, 2010.










Frolics of the Five Animals













Monkey Frolic





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Bibliography, Links and Resources
Monkey Frolic


Ancient Way to Keep Fit.   Compiled by Zong Wu and Li Mao.  Translated by Song Luzeng, Liu Beijian, and Liu Zhenkai.  Paintings by Zhang Ke Ren.  Foreword by Kumar Frantzis.  Bolinas, California, Shelter Publications, 1992.  211 pages, glossary.  ISBN: 0679417893.  Outstanding illustrations by Zhang Ke Ren.  The Five Animal Frolics are beautifully illustrated on pages 68-80.  

Animal Frolics Qigong: Bibliography, Links, Lessons, Resources, Quotations, History 

Animal Speak: The Spiritual and Magical Powers of Creatures Great and Small.  By Ted Andrews.  Llewellyn, 1993.  383 pages.  ISBN: 0875420281.  "Shows readers how to identify his or her animal totem and learn how to invoke its energy and use it for personal growth and inner discovery." 

Animal Spirits and Nature Spirits

Animal Spirits: The Shared World - Sacrifice, Ritual, and Myth; Animal Souls and Symbols.  By Nicholas J. Saunders.  Index, 182 pages.  ISBN: 0316903051.

Animal Wise: The Spirit Language and Signs of Nature.  By Ted Andrews.  Dragonhawk Pub., 1999.  400 pages.  ISBN: 1888767340.

Autumn (Fall):  Poems, Quotes, Sayings, Lore 

The Bear: The Five Animal Frolics   

Beginning Qigong: Chinese Secrets for Health and Longevity.  By Stephen Comee.   Tokyo, Tuttle Publishing, 1993.  120 pages.  ISBN:0804817219.  VSCL.   

Chi Kung: Five Animal, Five Elements.  By Dr. Xue Zhi Wang, O.M.D., C.A.  Instructional VHS.  4115 University Way N.E. #111, Seattle, WA 98105.  Phone (206) 547-2435. 

Chi Kung Fundamentals 1: Five Animals Video.   By Michael Winn.  Instructional videotape, 90 minutes.  Instructional audiotape.  Telephone: 888-999-0555.  

Chi Kung (Qi Gong, Dao Yin) : Links, Bibliography, Resources, Quotations  

Chinese Healing Arts: Internal Kung Fu.  Edited by William R. Berk.  Burbank, CA, Unique Publications.  209 pages.  ISBN: 0865680833.  VSCL.  Includes numerous translations of classic works. 

Chinese Healing Exercises: The Tradition of Daoyin.  By Livia Kohn.  University of Hawaii Press, 2008.  268 pages.  ISBN:
0824832698.  History of Daoist health practices. 

Chinese Healing Exercises: The Tradition of Daoyin.  By Livia Kohn.  University of Hawaii Press, 2008.  268 pages.  ISBN: 0824832698.  History of Daoist health practices. 

Cloud Hands Blog

Cloud Hands Website: Qigong and Taijiquan 

The Complete Book of Chinese Health and Healing.  By Daniel Reid.  Random House, 1994.  484 pages.  ISBN: 0877739293.  

Correspondences and Alchemical Associations of the Monkey

Correspondences and Alchemical Associations of the Animals of the Five Animal Frolics Qigong 

Crane Frolic:  Bibliography, Resources, Lessons

Daoyin, Qigong, Chi Kung, Yangsheng:  Bibliography, Links, Resources, Lessons, Lore 

Deer Frolic:  Bibliography, Resources, Lessons  

Dragon Qigong  

Drawing Silk: Masters' Secrets for Successful Tai Chi Practice.  By Paul B. Gallagher.  Third Edition.  Fairview, North Carolina, Total Tai Chi, 2007, 1988.  245 pages.  ISBN:  9781419663127.  The Five Animal Frolics are covered on pp. pp. 214-215.  

Druken Monkey Kung Fu and Staff/Pole Form   

The Effect of Precaution against Sub-health of the Health Qigong Wu Qin Xi.  Chinese Health Qigong Association.  2008. 

Eight Section Brocade Qigong   Ba Duan Jin. 

Ecstatic Body Postures: An Alternate Reality Workbook.  By Belinda Gore.  Foreword by Felicitas Goodman.  Santa Fe,  New Mexico, Bear and Company, 1995.  Endnotes, 284 pages.  MGC.  ISBN: 1879181223. The Bear Spirit Posture is described and illustrated, pp. 49-54.  

The Ecstatic Experience: Healing Postures for Spirit Journeys.  By Belinda Gore.  Bear and Company, 2009.  160 pages.  Includes 60 minute CD of trance rhythms.  .  ISBN: 1591430968.  VSCL. 

Ecstatic Trance: New Ritual Body Postures.   By Felicitas D. Goodman and Nana Nauwald.  Binkey Kok, 2003.  Workbook edition, 184 pages.  ISBN: 9074597637.   VSCL. 

Fei Chang Fang Monkey Style - Promotes nimbleness of the limbs.

Five Animal Frolics

Five Animal Frolics Qigong: Bibliography, Resources, Lessons, Links, Quotations, History

Five Animal Frolics: A Form Workbook.  A Complete Qigong Program for High Energy, Vitality and Well Being.  By John Du Cane.  St. Paul, Minnesota, Dragon Door Publications, 2002.  Second Edition, 2002.  121 pages.  Spiral bound notebook.  100 photographs.  No ISBN.   VSCL.  John Du Cane explains and provide photographs of demonstrations of 6 Monkey movements and postures, pp. 69-84. 

The Five Animals do the Six Healing Sounds.  By Michael Winn.  Healing Tao Home Study Video, 2004.  Qigong Fundamentals 1.  1 DVD.  Instruction in the Inner Smile, Ocean Breathing, 6 Healing Sounds, and Five Animals.  Also Qigong Fundamentals 1 includes lectures by Michael Winn on six audio CDs.  VSCL. 

Five Animal Sports Qigong.  Instructional DVD, 180 minutes, by Dr. Yang, Jwing-Ming and Kathy Yang.  YMAA Publication Center, 2008.  ASIN: B0018OZFOS.  VSCL. 

Green Paths in the Valley Blog

Green Way Research.    Red Bluff, California.

Hatha Yoga: The Hidden Language; Symbols, Secrets and Metaphor.  By Swami Sivananda Radha.  Foreward by B.K.S. Iyengar.  Spokane, Washington, Timeless Books, 1987, 1995.  Index, 308 pages.  ISBN:  0931454743.  MGC.  A wonderful book filled with lore, myths, symbols, stories, and metaphors about various yoga postures. Yoga postures that embody aspects of birds (pp. 180-225) include the Swan (Hamsasana), Crane (Bakasana), Eagle (Garudasana), Peacock (Mayurasana), and Cock (Kukkutasana).  

History of the Five Animal Frolics 

"Hua Tuo's Five Animal Frolics," Zhou Lishang.  T'ai Chi: The International Magazine of T'ai Chi Ch'uan: Vol. 29, No. 4, August, 2005, pp. 42-49.  Translation by Yan Shufan.  Part 1.  A detailed article on how to do the Frolics.  This version of the Frolics set was developed by the Shanghai University of Sports and approved by the State Physical Culture and Sports Bureau. The articles includes set by set photos, instructions, and some very interesting illustrations from the Ma Wang Dui Tomb No. 3 findings.    

Kid's Yoga and Tai Chi  

Monkey Bar Gymnasium   

Monkey Frolic.  UTube Video, 2:03 Min. 
Performed by Anson Rathbone, 2007.  As taught by Deguang at NESA's Medical Qigong Class. 

Monkey Frolic Qigong.   By Mike Garofalo, Valley Spirit Qigong, Red Bluff, California. 

Monkey Kung Fu   

Monkey Kung Fu, Monkey Fist, Hou Quan (猴拳) 

Monkey Exercise   Illustrations and descriptions for the two monkey frolics exercises taken from the book Wu Qin Xi by the Chinese Health Qigong Association. 

Monkey Mind  

Nature Spirits: How to Create Relationships the Nature Spirits of Animals

One Old Druid's Final Journey: Notebooks of the Librarian of Gushen Grove 

Qigong Essentials: Five Animal Frolics.  Instructional DVD, 70 minutes, by Master Jesse Tsao.  Tai Chi Healthways, San Diego.  "Five Animal Frolics is an ancient Chinese Qigong practice. Hua-tuo, the most famous Chinese doctor in ancient China, designed Five Animals Frolic based on Chuang-tzu's Taoist practice and traditional Chinese medical philosophy. He observed animals in nature and mimicked their daily activities to create movements for people cultivating life energy. Each animal form has a special effect on a human being's inner organ health: tiger form for liver energy flow; deer form for kidney; bear form for spleen and stomach; ape form for the heart; bird form for lungs. Five Animal Frolics can fully stimulate and awaken qi, the vital energy inside of our body, contained within the meridian channels and cavities. Through the stimulation and accumulation of qi, a person can clear out stress and sickness and may not only acquire a new sense of physical and mental energy, but create the conditions for longevity as well. Throughout 1700 years, routines have been passed down from different people, resulting in various versions of Five Animal Frolics. This video shows the most popular forms in China today, and provides the basic "how-to" aspects of the routine. Master Tsao demonstrates the complete form in both front and back view, along with detailed instruction in posture-by-posture lessons. It is a good reference for home study, or a resource for instructor's teaching preparation.  Suggest 30 class hours."  Sample UTube Video of this DVD.  VSCL. 

Qigong Essentials for Health Promotion.  By Jiao Guorui.  Translated by Jiao Tielan.  Beijing, China Reconstructs Press, 1988.  ISBN: 750720100.  ASIN: B000B6TA54.  The Animal Frolics are discussed and explained on 190-236.  The text includes illustrations (line drawings).  The Monkey Folic is described and illustrated on pp. 220-202. VSCL. 

Qigong: Five Animals Part 3 of 6 Parts.  Two Monkey Movements.  UTube video, 7:04 minutes.  Narration in Chinese.  By Wakarukai. 

Qigong (Chi Kung, Dao Yin) : Links, Bibliography, Resources, Quotations

Relaxation (Sung, Song, Shoong), Effortless Action, and Qigong    Links, bibliography, quotes, and notes.  By Mike Garofalo. 

Ripening Peaches:  Daoist Studies and Practices.  Taoist scriptures, bibliography, Quanzhen Daoism, Neidan, gardening, tea, history, qigong/daoyin, readings, etc. 

Sacred Circles 

Secrets to Living Younger Longer: The Self-Healing Path of Qigong Standing Meditation and Tai Chi.  By Michael Mayer, Ph.D..  Orinda, California, Body Mind Healing Publications, 2004.  Index, bibliography, 281 pages.  ISBN: 0970431066.  This book has a companion instructional video/DVD called "Body Mind Healing Qigong." Website:  Body Mind Healing.  VSCL.   

Shaolin Qi Gong: Energy in Motion.  By Shi Xinggui.  In collaboration with Eleonore Yogl.  Translated by Ariel Godwin.  Rochester, Vermont, Destiny Books, 2007.  153 pages.  Includes a 53 minute instructional DVD.  ISBN: 9781594772641.  VSCL. 

Shapeshifting: Shamanic Techniques for Global and Personal Information.  By John M. Perkins.  Inner Traditions Intl. Ltd., 1997.  184 pages.  ISBN: 0892816635.   VSCL. 

Simplified Tai Chi Chuan, Standard 24 Form, in the Yang Style

Simplified Tai Chi Chuan, 18 Movement Form, in the Chen Style, by Grand Master Chen Zhenglei

Six Taoist Healing Sounds   Research by Mike Garofalo. 

Spontaneous Five Animal Play Qigong (Zifa Wuqinxi Donggong). 
Compiled and readjusted by Liang Shifeng who is a major Qigong master from a southern province of China, called Guangdong in the early 1980s. 

Standing Meditation (Zhan Zhuang) 

Subject Index to the Cloud Hands Taijiquan and Qigong Website 

Summer Months:  Quotes, Poems, Sayings, Lore  

Tai Chi Chuan 

Taijiquan (Tai Chi Chuan) and Qigong 

Taming the Monkey Mind    

Taming the Monkey Mind   

Taoist Qigong for Health and Vitality.  A Complete Program of Movement, Meditation, and Healing Sounds.   By Sat Chuen Hon.  Foreword by Philip Glass.  Boston, MA, Shambhala Pubs. Inc., 2003.  Notes, 174 pages.  ISBN: 1590300688. VSCL.  The healing sound for the Heart in this book is "Ho" and is described on pp. 71-83. 

Totems: The Transformative Power of Your Personal Animal Totem.  By Brad Steiger.  Harper San Francisco, 1997.  224 pages.  ISBN: 0062514253.  

Valley Spirit Qigong, Red Bluff, California.  Instructor: Mike Garofalo, M.S. 

Vitality Qigong: An Instructional Guide to the Monkey and Deer Frolics.  By John Du Cane.  Instructional videotape, 43 minutes.  

The Way of Qigong: The Art and Science of Chinese Energy Healing.  By Kenneth S. Cohen.  Foreword by Larry Dossey.  New York Ballantine Books, 1997.  Index, notes, appendices, 
427 pages.  ISBN: 0345421094.  One of my favorite books: comprehensive, informative, practical, and reasonable.  

Way of the Staff  

Ways of Walking: Poems, Quotes, Sayings, Bibliography, Links, Lessons, Resources 

Wild Goose Qigong: Links, Bibliography, Quotes, Notes

Wu Qin Xi (Five Animal Frolics): Chinese Health Qigong.  Compiled by the Chinese Health Qigong Association.  Beijing, Chine, Foreign Languages Press, 2007.  102 pages, includes an instructional DVD.  ISBN: 9787119047799.  VSCL. The two Monkey Frolics exercises are described on pp. 66-78. 

Yi Jin Jing Qigong (Muscle/Tendon Changing Qigong): Bibliography, Links, Resources, Lessons.   By Mike Garofalo. 



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Postures, Routines, Names of Movements
Monkey Frolic


Jiao Guorui, "Qigong Essentials for Health Promotion," Monkey Frolic, 1988

Beginning Movement
1.  Monkey Footwork 
2.  Peeping While Sitting   
3.  Offering Fruit Gifts   
4.  Picking Peaches     
5.  Escaping and Hiding
Ending Movement

Qigong Essentials for Health Promotion.  By Jiao Guorui.  Translated by Jiao Tielan.  Beijing, China Reconstructs Press, 1988.  ISBN: 750720100.  ASIN: B000B6TA54.  The Animal Frolics are discussed and explained on 190-236.  The text includes illustrations (line drawings).  The Monkey Folic is described and illustrated on pp. 220-202. VSCL. 


Paul Gallagher, "Drawing Silk," Monkey Frolic, 1988

1.  Monkey Grasping Branch (Holding and Pulling) 
2.  Monkey Looks Behind  
3.  Monkey Offers Fruit   
4.  Palms Extended Forward  
5.  Fingers Widely Open in Front of Chin   
6.  Monkey Offers Fruit Twice  

"Drawing Silk: Masters' Secrets for Successful Tai Chi Practice."  By Paul B. Gallagher.  Third Edition.  Fairview, North Carolina, Total Tai Chi, 2007, 1988.  pp. 1-9, 214-215.  


John Du Cane.  "The Five Animal Frolics Workbook," Monkey Frolic, 2002. 

1.  Monkey Grasping Branch   
2.  Monkey Looks Behind      
3.  Monkey Offers Fruit      
4.  Monkey Offers Fruit, Variation A     
5.  Monkey Offers Fruit, Variation B    
6.  Monkey Offers Fruit Twice      

Five Animal Frolics: A Form Workbook.  A Complete Qigong Program for High Energy, Vitality and Well Being.  By John Du Cane.  St. Paul, Minnesota, Dragon Door Publications, 2002.  Second Edition, 2002.  121 pages.  John Du Cane explains and provide photographs of demonstrations of 6 Monkey movements and postures, pp. 69-84. 


Anson Rathbone.  "Five Animal Frolics: Monkey," 2007

1.  Monkey Spirals     
2.  Reach for the Fruit    
3.  Share the Fruit    
4.  Monkey in the Mirror  

Monkey Frolic.  UTube Video, 2:03 Min.  Performed by Anson Rathbone, 2007.  As taught by Deguang at NESA's Medical Qigong Class. 


Chinese Health Qigong Association.  "Wu Qin Xi," Monkey Frolic, 2007

1.  Lifting the Monkey's Paws
2.  Picking Fruit

"Wu Qin Xi."  By the Chinese Health Qigong Association, 2007.  The two Monkey Frolics exercises are described on pp. 66-78.  Monkey Exercise: Illustrations and descriptions for the two monkey frolics exercises taken from the book Wu Qin Xi by the Chinese Health Qigong Association. 


Michael Garofalo.  "Monkey Frolic of the Five Animal Frolics," 2009

Monkey Postures and Stances
1.  The Monkey Looks Backward from Side to Side at Night    
2.  The White Ape Offers the Fruit   

Monkey Frolic Qigong version by Michael P. Garofalo, 2008.   




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Lessons, Instructions, Practice, Suggestions
Monkey Frolic


Michael Garofalo.  "Monkey Frolic of the Five Animal Frolics," 2009


Monkey Stance
1.  The Monkey Looks Backward from Side to Side       
2.  The White Ape Offers the Fruit        


"Monkey Frolic Daoyin," by Michael Garofalo, 2009, Instructions. 

I began my study and practice of Taijiquan and Qigong in 1986, and Yoga in 2001.  Over the years, I learned Monkey Frolic sets from numerous instructional media (DVD or VHS), books, from different instructors, and from personal practice.  I have been teaching Taijiquan and Qigong since 2000, and yoga since 2004, in Red Bluff, California.  In 2008, I attended a two-day Five Animal Frolics workshop taught by Kenneth Cohen in Sacramento, California.  I have elsewhere provided some general comments about the practice of the Five Animal Frolics.  I have also provided a Disclaimer about the practice of Qigong and Taijiquan. 

A careful review of all the available electronic media and books that discuss the Monkey Frolics has shown me that no two teachers teach the same Monkey Frolics exercise forms (techniques, postures, movement sequences), nor do they give the movements the same names, nor do the total number of movements in a Monkey Frolics set remain the same.  Some stand in one place and do the exercises, others move forward as they perform a set a of exercises.  Therefore, I've chosen movements from various Monkey Frolics teachers that appeal to me the most, and I have given my reasons for so choosing in the explanations and instructions that follow below.  In general, 1) I have not chosen Monkey Frolics exercises that involve lots of forward or backward stepping because this does not work well within the space I have for teaching Qigong or Yoga, 2) nearly all the exercises chosen require some balancing efforts, and 3) monkey lore and monkey behaviors in wild or domesticated settings were a factor in choosing and naming the exercises I have chosen so as to help with "pretending" to be a monkey, or "becoming" a monkey as some shamans might try to do.   

Many people who do the Animal Frolics exercies only do two movements for each animal, repeat the movement 2-3 times, and then do the next Animal Frolic.  This would require 10 movements (5 Animals with 2 movements for each Animal), for a total of 20-30 repetitions.  A very good example of this method of exercising is the Wu Qin Xi set from the Chinese Health Qigong Association. 

In my private home practice, most of the time, I like to do just one Animal at a time.  I practice the Monkey Frolic movement set as described below, 6 movements; and with 4 repetitions of each movement, twice to each side. 

I do favor some spontaneity, freedom, and flexibility in choosing what Animal Frolic(s) to practice each day, and how to practice the Frolic.  Consequently, my private home practice is varied.  Depending upon my interests, time available, mood, and what healing modality I feel is most needed by me, I feel free to play around with combinations and repetitions.  We human beings, unlike our wild animal neighbors, are more varied and creative in our activities and responses to our environment.  In some sense, we are "wilder" (i.e., more unpredictable, spontaneous, uncontrolled, liberated, unnatural, chaotic) than all other animals, wild or domesticated. 

When I teach the Animal Frolics, I teach one animal at at time, appropriate to the season, and just teach that one animal frolic set with explanations and commentary relevant to the specific wild animal, healing benefits, history, Five Elements, healing sound, seasonal aspects, natural history, etc.    

All the Monkey Frolics Qigong teachers do speak of the same general mind-body principles to follow while doing the Monkey Frolics Daoyin (Qigong) exercises: liveliness, alertness, playfulness, cleverness, staying relaxed (sung), doing the movement slowly, staying balanced, being deliberate, taking on and expressing the characteristics and nature of monkeys, inner awareness, deep breathing, concentrated mind, not forcing (wu wei), full awareness of energy movement in the body-mind, joyfulness, inner peace, delight ...


Monkey Stance


1.  The Monkey Looks Backward from Side to Side 

Stand up straight, arms at your sides, with your feet together or up to 12" apart.  Draw both hands toward the middle of the waist, palms and fingers hanging down, and bring them to about six inches apart.  Draw the hand slowly up the mid-line of the body until they are at about the center of the chest.  As the arms are being drawn upward, gradually bend the knees.  Feet can remain flat on the floor throughout or you can rise up on your toes as you bring your hands upward.  The upper torso leans forward a little.   




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Monkey Frolic and Monkey Lore



"The Monkey Play is to imitate the shape and movements of a monkey to show its alertness, agility, and constant movement. The features of a monkey are its love to imitate, agile movements, good at picking fruit using upper limbs, and escaping the attacks from other animals. During the practice, you need to focus your attention on the "naval" to reach a state of "body is moving but mind is calm". That means that you should not only practice the agility of your limbs on the outside, but also practice controlling your thoughts on the inside. The goal of the "Monkey Play" is to reach a level of "pure and tranquil in thoughts, light but strong body, and "body is moving but mind is calm". This play will enhance the functions of the heart and lung and strengthen the kidney and waist. This play is suitable for the older, the weaker, and the depressed people. It can cure many chronicle diseases."
-   Five Animal Frolics  



"The Monkey is a clever and nimble animal, fond of scampering about and climbing trees.  When performing the monkey exercise, try to imitate the light and swift movements of the monkey, but for the internal exercise you should keep your mind like a bright moon shining in the quiet and still night.  So the monkey exercise is externally dynamic and internally static."
Wu Qin Xi, Chinese Health Qigong Association, 2007, p. 66. 



"Sometime between the Eastern Zhou (ca 776-256 BCE) and the Qin (ca 221-206 BCE) Dynasties, they developed the Two Animal Forms (Liangqinxi), which imitate the actions of a bear climbing a tree and hanging from its branches and a crane stretching out its wings in flight.  In the former Han Dynasty (ca 206 BCE - 8 CE) a third form, the monkey, was added.  Then, over a century later, in the Later Han Dynasty (ca 25-220 CE) after the Three Animal Forms (Sanqinxi) had been strongly influenced by Taoist exercises for longevity, two more forms, based on the movements of the deer and the tiger, were added by learned doctors of medicine who developed them to help give their aristocratic patients healthier and longer lives, thus creating the Five Animal Forms (Wuqinxi).  Since then, the Five Animal Forms have give rise to a number of forms of Qigong exercises, most notably the Eight Pieces of Silk (Baduanjin) , the Everyday Stretching Qigong (Yijinjing) exercises, and the internal Qi regimens of the various Shaolin and Tai Chi schools, which can all trace their ancestry back to the original Two Animal Forms and Taoist breathing exercises."
-   Stephen Comee, Beginning Qigong: Chinese Secrets for Health and Longevity, p. 59. 



"Frolicking like monkeys helps develop your child's suppleness and agility. It helps them become quick witted, alert, and nimble.  Monkey frolics help remove blockages in the flow of blood and chi. They help prevent and harmonize hardening of the arteries. They help to clear plaque also.  They loosen their body and joints. They sharpen their eyes and improve hearing."
Five Animal Frolics  



"Mind monkey or Monkey mind, from Chinese xinyuan and Sino-Japanese shin'en 心猿 [lit. "heart-/mind-monkey"], is a Buddhist term meaning "unsettled; restless; capricious; whimsical; fanciful; inconstant; confused; indecisive; uncontrollable". In addition to Buddhist writings, including Chan or Zen, Consciousness-only, Pure Land, and Shingon, this "mind-monkey" psychological metaphor was adopted in Daoism, Neo-Confucianism, poetry, drama, and literature. "Mind-monkey" occurs in two reversible four-character idioms with yima or iba 意馬 [lit. "thought-/will-horse"], most frequently used in Chinese xinyuanyima 心猿意馬 and Japanese ibashin'en 意馬心猿. The "Monkey King" Sun Wukong in the Journey to the West personifies the mind-monkey."
Monkey Mind





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Information, Facts, Lore, Artwork


Hanuman: Hindu Deity with an Ape or Monkey Like Form 

Monkey - Wikipedia  

Sun Wukong, Monkey King, Chinese Legendary Creature

Studies in 2001 led genetic scientists to the conclusion that the DNA of chimpanzees is 95% the same as the DNA of humans.  Robert Britten reported these facts in 2002 in the Proceedings of the National Academy Science.  Other genetic scientists have reported differences in the number of chromosomes, telemores, and sizes of the chromosomes between chimpanzees and humans.  Not surprisingly, human beings have numerous DNA similarities with other mammals, and even less complex animals, e.g., the DNA genetic makeup of the mouse is similar to 85% of the genetic structure of human beings.  Genetic research is still in its infancy, e.g., the Human Genome Project was conducted from 1990 to 2003 and studied the genetic structures of humans and mice.   



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Table of Correspondences, Associations, Symbolism
Monkey Frolics 





Correspondences and Alchemical Associations for the Monkey:

Attributes:  Flexibility, Agility, Alertness, Quickness, Playfulness, Curiosity 
Element:  Earth 
Direction: Southwest or Center
Season:  Late Summer and Early Autumn;  Harvest Time, Indian Summer   
Color:  Yellow 
Yin Organ:  Spleen
Yang Organ:  Stomach 
Energizing Movements:  Grounding, Stabilizing, Rooting, Centering, Transforming 
Temporal Associations:  Afternoon of the Day, Late Summer, Harvest Season, Age: 40-50 years old
Healing:  Heart and Small Intestine; Large Muscles, Mouth, Lips 
Healing Sound:  "Hoooo"
Releasing:   Worry, Impulsiveness  
Encourage:  Balanced and Playful (Yang); Secure and Confident (Yin) 

The assignment of alchemical and magickal correspondences to the Monkey vary amongst practitioners of the Five Animal Frolics, qigong theorists, and Taoist Alchemists.  The following authors have provided tables of correspondences:  Kenneth Cohen, Franklin Fick, Mike Garofalo, Alan Graham, Livia Kohn, Joseph Morales, Ken Morgan, Nancy Seeber, Yang Jwing-Ming, and Oberon Zell-Ravenheart

Readers should keep in mind that knowledge of these alchemical and magickal correspondences is of some usefulness to most practitioners.  The true Adepts and playful Wizards will need to pay very close attention to correspondences.  Theses associations have a long history in China and their meanings are part of the mental aspects of the Five Animals Frolics Daoyin practice.  Daily practice of the Frolics, often outdoors, is essential to embody these cosmic principles.     

A wise person will always try to understand the cosmic forces that influence and/or rule our lives: the air we breathe, the sun that warms the earth, the water that sustains all living beings, the plants and animals of our world, the human technology that makes our lifestyles possible, the ideas and values that constitute our spirit.  These forces are symbolized by Air (breath, energy), Fire (sun, hearth), Water (rain, snow, lakes, sea, ponds, wells), Wood (plants, trees, fruit, grains, food), Animals (Deer, Crane, Monkey, Tiger, Bear, Dragon, etc., domesticated animals, food, humans), Metal (technology, science, agriculture, earthly resources), Humanity (persons, family, village, state, society, culture), Spirit (mind, wisdom, Shen, Dao), and the Unbounded (imagination, fantasy, spirits, divine, Wu, Heaven).           

In China, the Five Elements (Phases, Processes, Cycles) are: Earth, Fire, Water, Wood, and Metal.  In the West, the Five Elements (Materials, Substances, Components) are Earth, Fire, Water, Air, and Spirit (Aether).   

Here is my current table of correspondences for the Five Animal Frolics Daoyin:


Animal Element Season
Healing Sounds
Deer Wood Spring
Yin: Liver
Yang: Gallbladder
Joints, Tendons
Benevolence/Kindness  Ren
Anger, Shouting 
Patience & Subtlety


Crane Fire Summer
Yin: Heart
Yang: Small Intestine
Blood Vessels
Order  Li
Joy, Laughing
Radiate, Disperse, Scatter, Rise

"Hoo"  as "Hook"
Monkey Earth Harvest
Young Adult
Yin: Spleen
Yang: Stomach
Taste, Mouth 
Trust  Xin
Pensiveness, Worry
Tiger Metal Autumn
Middle Age
Yin: Lungs
Yang: Large Intestine
Nasal Mucus
Whole Body
Smell, Nose 
Integrity Yi
Bear Water Winter
Old Age
Yin: Kidneys
Yang: Bladder
Lower Back
Hearing , Ears
Wisdom  Zhi
Inner Focus
Sensitive Smelling
Gathering, Absorbing
Wavelike, Dropping

"Hooo" sounds like the word who.



I have reflected on and developed my own schemas and correspondences tables.  Readers might want to look at my interpretations of the Trigrams of the I Ching 

I also developed a table of correspondences for the Baguazhang Qigong Animals circle walking practices.  In the Bagua Qigong the two "Birds" are the Hawk and Phoenix:





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Animal Frolics Qigong (Daoyin):     Deer     Crane     Monkey     Tiger     Bear     Dragon    







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Green Way Journal by Michael P. Garofalo









Cloud Hands - Yun Shou

Waving Hands Like Clouds Homepage


Michael P. Garofalo's E-Mail


Red Bluff, Tehama County, North Sacramento Valley, Northern California, U.S.A.
Cities in the area: Oroville, Paradise, Durham, Chico, Hamilton City, Orland, Corning,
Rancho Tehama, Los Molinos, Tehama, Gerber, Manton, Cottonwood, 
Anderson, Shasta Lake, Palo Cedro, and Redding, CA



Michael P. Garofalo, 2010, All Rights Reserved

This webpage was first posted on the Internet in January 2003 at:

This webpage was moved to this URL on June 15, 2009:  Animal Frolics Qigong



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Fitness and Well Being

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Master Chang San-Feng

Sun Family T'ai Chi Ch'uan


Cold Mountain Sages

The Spirit of Gardening


Walking and Tai Chi Chuan

Yang Family Tai Chi Chuan

Alphabetical Index to the Cloud Hands Website


Cloud Hands: T'ai Chi Ch'uan and Chi Kung Website




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