Nature Spirits

Divas, Elementals, Fairies, Elves, Wee Folk, Trolls, Sidhe, Ghosts, Totems, Dryads
Faery Folk, Lars, Shee, Jotunns, Satyrs, Nymphs, Dragons, Dwarves, Gnomes, Sylphs
Genii, Junii, Pucks, Giants, Fetishes, Insects, Angels, Demons, Minions of Lord Loki
Big Wild Animals, Menehune, Animism, Kami, Outsiders, Pantheism, Salamanders
Strange Beings, Air Spirits, Garden Spirits, Immortals, Ents, Avatars, Fire Spirits
Succubus, Water Spirits, Imps, Penates, Genius Loci, White Lady of the Land, Selkies
Hobgoblins, Earth Spirits, Mermaids, Brownies, Fairy, Tricksters, Udines, Goblins
Household Guardians, Homunculus, Fantastical Creatures, Leprechauns, Little Folk
Good Neighbors, Imaginary Beings, Vanir, Little People, Sirens, Mythical Creatures
Landvaettir, Land Spirits, Elements, Geist, Wights


Research by Michael P. Garofalo
The Librarian of Gushen Grove


Glossary     Bibliography      Links      Quotations     Invoking

Nature Mysticism     Goddesses     Gardening      Home 

Cloud Hands Blog     The Good Life     Druids     Taoists      



"The religion of one age is the literary entertainment of the next."
-  Ralph Waldo Emerson

I am not a Druid, Taoist, Buddhist, Tantric or Neo-Pagan believer or worshipper.  I, Mike Garofalo, investigate these subjects out of literary, philosophical, historical, aesthetic, moral, and sociological curiosity.  I am a student of comparative religions.  I don't believe in supernatural beings and don't belong to any religious organization.  I find the topics listed below interesting from a metaphorical, figurative, literary, imaginative, and aesthetic viewpoint. 










Nature Spirits
Bibliography, Links, Resources, Articles, Quotations



Anglo-Saxon Polytheism

Animal Spirits:   Animal Speak: The Spiritual and Magical Powers of Creatures Great and Small.  By Ted Andrews.  Llewellyn, 1993.  383 pages.  ISBN: 0875420281.  "Shows readers how to identify his or her animal totem and learn how to invoke its energy and use it for personal growth and inner discovery."  VSCL. 

Animal Spirits:   Animal Wise: The Spirit Language and Signs of Nature.  By Ted Andrews.  Dragonhawk Pub., 1999.  400 pages.  ISBN: 1888767340.   

Animal Spirits:   Animal Spirits: The Shared World - Sacrifice, Ritual, and Myth; Animal Souls and Symbols.  By Nicholas J. Saunders.  Index, 182 pages.  ISBN: 0316903051. 




Animism: Wikipedia Article    

Anthropomorphic Fallacy  Animal Liberation Front   

Anthropmorphic Fallacy, Pathetic Fallacy

Anthropomorphic Fallacy: Reification Fallacy, Hypostatisation, Concretism, or the Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness  

Anthropomorphism  Wikipedia

Anthropomorphism  Carnegie Mellon

"The term pathetic fallacy was coined by the critic John Ruskin (1819–1900) in his 1856 work Modern Painters, in which he wrote that the aim of the pathetic fallacy was “to signify any description of inanimate natural objects that ascribes to them human capabilities, sensations, and emotions." In the narrow sense intended by Ruskin, the pathetic fallacy is a scientific failing, since most of his defining paper concerns art, which he maintains ought to be its truthful representation of the world as it appears to our senses, not as it appears in our imaginative and fanciful reflections upon it. However, in the natural sciences, a pathetic fallacy is a serious error in scientific reasoning if taken literally. M. H. Abrams in A Glossary of Literary Terms says that Ruskin's use of the term "pathetic fallacy" was derogatory."
-   Anthropomorphic Fallacy 



April: Month of the Year: Quotations, Poetry, Celebrations, Bibliography, Links, Gardening Chores.  Research by Mike Garofalo. 

August: Month of the Year: Quotations, Poetry, Celebrations, Bibliography, Links, Gardening Chores.  Research by Mike Garofalo. 

Autumnal Equinox (Mabon, Alban Elfed) Celebrations and Nature Spirits


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Bestiary:  A Wizard's Bestiary: A Menagerie of Myth, Magic, and Mystery.  By Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and Ash Dekirk.  New Page Books, 2007.  357 pages.  ISBN: 1564149560. 

Bestiary:  The Mythic Bestiary: The Illustrated Guide to the World's Most Fantastical Creatures.  By Tony Allan.  Duncan Baird, 2008.  256 pages.  ISBN: 1844834840. 



Calling Nature Spirits.   By Selena Fox. 

Calling Nature Spirits:  Invocations, Prayers, Communications, Rituals

Casting the Circle, Calling on the Quarters, Invoking the Elementals, Opening the Four Gates    By Mike Garofalo. 

Celtic Folklore: The People of the Mounds, Articles on the Sidhe.  By L. McDonald. 

Chthonic  (Earth spirits)  

Cloud Hands Blog   By Mike Garofalo. 

Celtic Nature Worship 




Coyote Mythology    

Coyote Legend

A Coyote Reader.  Edited by William Bright.  Berkeley, University of California Press, 1993.  Bibliography, index, 202 pages.  ISBN: 0520080629. 

Coyote Stories and Poems of Native American People

Coyote Stories.  Collected and Retold by Mourning Dove.  Edited by Heister Dean Guie. 

Maidu: Native Americans of Northern California

Miwok Mythology  (Coastal and Sierra Native Americans of Northern California)  O-let'-te Coyote-man, the Creator  

Native American Trickster Tales    "How Coyote Stole Fire" (Karok) 


Two Coyote Stories.  By Jeff Lockwood.  

Wintun   Native Americans of Northern California 


"The Coyote mythos is one of the most popular among Native American cultures. Coyote is a ubiquitous being and can be categorized in many types. In creation myths, Coyote appears as the Creator himself; but he may at the same time be the messenger, the culture hero, the trickster, the fool, the clown. He has also the ability of the transformer: in some stories he is a handsome young man; in others he is an animal; yet others present him as just a power, a sacred one. According to Crow (and other Plains) tradition, Old Man Coyote impersonates the Creator, "Old Man Coyote took up a handful of mud and out of it made people".  His creative power is also spread onto words, "Old Man Coyote named buffalo, deer, elk, antelopes, and bear. And all these came into being". In such myths Coyote-Creator is never mentioned as an animal; more, he can meet his animal counterpart, the coyote: they address each other as "elder brother" and "younger brother", and walk and talk together. According to A. Hultkranz, the impersonation of Coyote as Creator is a result of a taboo, a mythic substitute to the religious notion of the Great Spirit whose name was too dangerous and/or sacred to use apart from at special ceremonies.  In other stories, the Coyote is purely a clown that entertains, however; he usually ends up tricking people and stealing."
-   Trickster: Coyote  


"Coyote is a mythological character common to many Native American cultures, based on the coyote (Canis latrans) animal. This character is usually male and is generally anthropomorphic although he may have some coyote-like physical features such as fur, pointed ears, yellow eyes, tail and claws. The myths and legends which include Coyote vary widely from culture to culture.   Coyote shares many traits with the mythological figure Raven.   Coyote is featured in the culture of the following groups who live in the area covered by the state of California: the Karuk, , the Maidu of Northern California, the Tongva of Southern California, the Ohlone mythology of Northern California, the Miwok mythology of Northern California, and the Pomo mythology of Northern California."
-   Coyote Mythology  


"According to one Coast Miwok version "Coyote shook his walik" (something similar to a blanket of tule) to the four directions south, east, north and west. The water dried, and land appeared.   In one creation myth called The Diver Coyote creates the earth and land from the Ocean or endless water. Coyote sends a duck to dive for some "earth". The duck dives to the bottom and comes up with some "earth". Coyote takes the earth and mixes it with "Chanit" seeds and water. The mixture swells and "the earth was there.   Another creation story says that there is "no earth, only water". Silver Fox (a female) feels lonely and mentions this in a prayer song, and then meets the Coyote. Silver Fox makes an artistic proposal: "We will sing the world". They create the world together by dancing and singing. As they do so, the earth forms and takes shape   In The Creation of Man myth, Coyote catches a turkey buzzard, raven and crow, plucks their feathers and place the feathers in different parts of the earth. They turn into the Miwok people and their villages.   Coyote comes from the west alone, followed by Chicken Hawk, who is his grandson. Coyote turned "his first people" into animals. He made the Pomo people from mud and the Miwok people out of sticks.  From the Sierra Miwoks, another creation myth is more comparable to Pomo mythology: Coyote and Lizard create the world "and everything in it". Coyote create human beings from some twigs. They argue over whether human beings should have hands. Lizard wants humans to have hands but Coyote does not. Lizard wins a scuffle, and humans are created with hands.   According to Coast Miwok, the dead jumped into the ocean at Point Reyes and followed something like a string leading west beyond the breaker waves, that took them to the setting sun. There they remained with Coyote in an afterworld "ute-yomigo" or "ute-yomi", meaning "dead home.   Many of the ideas, plots and characters in Miwok mythology are shared with neighboring people of Northern California. For example the Coyote-lizard story is like the tale told by their neighbors, the Pomo people. In addition, the Ohlone also believed that Coyote was the grandfather of the Falcon and maker of mankind. The relationship and similarity to Yokuts mythology is also evident.   The myths of creation after an epic flood or ocean, the Earth Diver, and the Coyote as ancestor and trickser compare to Central and Northern California mythemes of Yokuts mythology, Ohlone mythology and Pomo mythology. The myths of "First People" dying out to be replaced with the Miwok people is a "deeply impressed conception" shared by Natives in Northwestern California."
-   Miwok Mythology  




Creatures in the Mist:  Little People, Wild Men, and Spirit Beings Around the World.  By Gary Varner.  


Daimones (Spirits) Greek nature spirits 

December: Quotations, Poetry, Celebrations, Bibliography, Links, Gardening Chores.  Research by Mike Garofalo. 

The Deva Handbook: How to Work with Nature's Subtle Energies.  By Nathaniel Altman.  Rochester, Vermont, Destiny Books, 1995.  Index, bibliography, 164 pages.  ISBN: 0892815523.  VSCL. 



Deva, Devas

Devas  See Also Nature Spirits  

Devas:   Devas (Buddhist) 

Devas:   Devas (Hinduism)  

Devas:   Devas, Fairies and Angels, by William Bloom (Gothic Image Publications, Glastonbury, England) 

Devas:   Devas or Nature Spirits  A nice summary of all types of Nature Spirits. 

Devas:   Findhorn Foundation   Located in Scotland.  Eileen Caddy and Dorothy Maclean were founders of Findhorn Gardens in the 1960's. 

Devas:   Images of Devas

Devas:  Perelandra: Cooperating Co-Creatively with Nature.   By P. Atwater.  Perelanda is in Washington, D. C. 

"From a human perspective, devas share the characteristic of being invisible to the physical human eye. The presence of a deva can be detected by those humans who have opened the divyacakus (Pāli: dibbacakkhu), an extrasensory power by which one can see beings from other planes. Their voices can also be heard by those who have cultivated a similar power of the ear.  Most devas are also capable of constructing illusory forms by which they can manifest themselves to the beings of lower worlds; higher and lower devas even have to do this between each other.  Devas do not require the same kind of sustenance as humans do, although the lower kinds do eat and drink. The higher sorts of deva shine with their own intrinsic luminosity.  Devas are also capable of moving great distances speedily and of flying through the air, although the lower devas sometimes accomplish this through magical aids such as a flying chariot."
Devas (Buddhist)  

"Devas, in Hinduism and Buddhism, are exalted beings of various types. The term 'deva' in Sanskrit means "shining one." Hinduism recognizes three types of devas: mortals living on a higher realm than other mortals, enlightened people who have realized God, and Brahman in the form of a personal God. In Buddhism, devas are gods who live in the various realms of heaven as rewards for their previous good deeds, but they are still subject to rebirth.  Madame Helena P. Blavatsky, co-founder of the Theosophical Society, introduced to the West her own conception of devas. She proclaimed them to be types of angels or gods that were progressed entities from previous planetary periods. They came to earth before the elementals and human beings, and would remain in the state of dormancy until a certain human evolutionary stage was reached. Then the devas would join with the elementals to help further the spiritual development of mankind.  Presently devas are more commonly thought of as nature spirits. They are invisible to most people, except those possessing the psychic ability of clairvoyance. They are said to communicate through means of clairaudience and meditation.  There seems to be a cooperative partnership between devas and human beings which has attracted attention in this time of increasing ecological consciousness. This partnership was discovered in the produce of Findhorn in Scotland and Perelandra in Washington, DC. It seems that devas are the `architects" of nature. A deva is assigned to every living thing, even the soil. They are the blueprint designers for all living things, and control all necessary energies for growth and health. At the two above mentioned facilities, it is said devas dispense information on planting, fertilizing, watering, and general plant care.  Devas seem very astonished and disturbed about man's destruction of the environment. But, they remain willing to work with people who strive to understand the intricacies and harmonies of nature."  





Dictionary of Northern Mythology.  By Rubolf Simek.  Translated by Angela Hall.  Suffolk, England, D. S. Brewer, 1984, 1993.  Extensive bibliography, 424 pages.  ISBN:  9780859915137.  VSCL. 

Dionysus(Greek), Bacchus (Roman) - Wikipedia  Ancient Greek god associated with wine, ivy, bulls, patron of agriculture and theater, flute, abandon, ecstasy, immanent divinity, death and rebirth (Osiris myth), Pan, divine liberation (Eleutherios), end of worries, exuberance, liberty. 

Dionysus - Wildvine   An excellent website with lots of information, insightful articles, and lovely layout. 

Dís   Norse mythology, a dís ("lady", plural dísir) is a ghost, spirit or deity associated with fate who can be both benevolent and antagonistic towards mortal people.  Norns are female spirits or deities who control one's fate in Norse mythology. 

Dragons:  Lore, Practices, Quotations, Bibliography

Druid Magic: The Practice of Celtic Wisdom.  By Maya Magee Sutton and Nicholas R. Mann.  Woodbury, Minnesota, Llewellyn Publications, 2000.  Bibliography, index, 331 pages.  ISBN: 1567184812.  VSCL. 

Druids - Notebooks of the Librarian of Gushen Grove  

A Druid's Herbal for the Sacred Earth Year.   By Ellen Evert Hopman.   Rochester, Vermont, Destiny Books, 1995.  Appendices, bibliography, index, 213 pages.  ISBN: 0892815019.  VSCL. 

The Dryad    By Hans Christian Anderson. 

Dryads and the Properties of Wood   "The dryad is the spirit of the tree, its essential pattern.  It is a living being linked to the tree and growing with it, but at the same time it is a trans-temporal and trans-spacial creature, living in the Astral dimension as much as in the mundane world. When a branch falls off a tree or is pruned, the dryad spirit is still in the wood. It is not really correct to speak of "parts" of a spirit, but one might consider the spirit of the wand to be part of the tree's consciousness. Some writers suggest that trees withdraw their life from a branch when they sense it is going to be cut and there is doubtless something to observations. Nevertheless, in my experience, the spirit always remains in some degree and can be awoken by enchantment when the branch is crafted into a wand."  Dryads, Druids and the Fifth Element.  57kb.  An excellent webpage.  

Dryad - Tree Spirits, Nymphs in Greek mythology   

Dwarves and Other Nature Spirits.  By Jaime T. Licauco.  Glossary. 


Earth Spirit Living: Bringing Heaven and Nature into Your Home.  By Ann Marie Holmes.  Atria Books, Beyond Worlds, 2007.  288 pages.  ISBN: 1582701504.  VSCL. 

Earth Spirits:   Cunningham's Encyclopedia of Crystal, Gem and Metal Magic.  By Scott Cunningham.  St. Paul, Minnesota, Llewellyn Pubs., 1995.  Index, 221 pages.  VSCL.  ISBN:   0875421261.   VSCL. 



Elementals, Elements, Fundamental Forces
(Earth, Air, Fire, Water, Mind/Spirit)


Elementals:  Casting the Circle, Opening the Four Gates 

Elementals:  Correspondences for the Elements   

Elementals:   Correspondences for the Elements in a Sacred Circle Garden   

Elementals:   Correspondences for the Elements Compared with Taoist Eight Trigrams (Bagua) of the I Ching

Elementals:   Elementally Speaking: The Nature Spirit's Guide to their World.  By Cheri Barstow.  Trafford Pub., 2006.  156 pages.  ISBN: 1412072719. 

Elementals:   Elementals.  By H. P. Blavatsky. 

Elementals:   Elementals, Fairies, and Nature Spirits 

Elementals:   Elementals - Nature Spirits  

Elementals:   Elementals - Nature Spirits  



Elves, Elfs, Elf, Alfar, Wights, Svartalfar, Liosalfar 

Elves:   Elf Lore     Bibliography, links, Elven languages. 

Elves:   Elf (Middle Earth) - Wikipedia

Elves:   Elf - Wikipedia    

Elves:  Elven Realities   Numerous links. 

Elves:   Elves 

Elves:   Elves, Elf, Elven Folk    Latin: Homo Fata Alfar  "Elves evolved in the mountains and forests of Scandinavia, where they are known as the alfar of the huldre folk. There are two main types of elf - Dark (svartalfar) and Light (liosalfar) - together with some regional varieties." 

Elves:   Elves, Elf, Germanic mythology  "An elf (plural elves) is a being of Germanic mythology. The elves were originally thought of as a race of divine or semi-divine beings (wights, vættir) endowed with magical powers, which they use both for the benefit and the injury of mankind. In pre-Christian mythology, they appear to have been divided into light elves and dark elves, difficult to delineate from the Æsir (gods) on one hand and the dvergar (dwarves) on the other.  In early modern and modern folklore, they become associated with the fairies of the 19-century Romantic portrayal of English folklore and assume a diminutive size, often living underground in hills or rocks, or in wells and springs. 19th-century Romanticism attempted to restore them to full stature, often depicting them as very young, probably adolescent (lack of facial hair on male elves), men and women of great beauty. From their depiction in Romanticism, elves entered the 20th-century high fantasy genre in the wake of the publications of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially the posthumous publication of his Silmarillion where Tolkien's treatment of the relation of light elves, dark elves, black elves and dwarves in Norse mythology is made explicit."  -  Wikipedia, 2010. 

Elves:   Elves - Google Search    

Elves:   Elves - Images from Google

Elves:   Elves, Wights, and Trolls: Studies Towards the Practice of Germanic Heathenry, Volume I.  By Kveldulf Gundarsson.  iUniverse, Inc., 2007.  184 pages.  ISBN:  0595421652.  VSCL.   

Elves:   Wood Elves, Warhammer

"The world is changed, I feel it in the water, I feel it in the earth, I smell it in the air."  ["I amar prestar aen, han mathon ne nen, han mathon ne chae, a han noston ned 'wilith."
-  Galadriel, Elven Queen, J. R. R. Tolkien, Lord of the Rings 

"In mainly Teutonic and Norse folklore, the elves were originally the spirits of the dead who brought fertility. Later they became supernatural beings, shaped as humans, who are either very beautiful (elves of light) or extremely ugly (dark / black elves). They were worshipped in trees, mountains and waterfalls. The Danish elves are beautiful creatures, but they have hollow backs. The Celtic elves are the size of humans.  The belief in elves, or supernatural and invisible beings, is almost universal. Apparently, there has been no primitive tribe or race that has not believed at one time or another that the world was inhabited by invisible beings. Especially on the British Isles the belief was very profound. In stories from the 8th and 9th century there are many references to elves, or fairies as they are called there. The king of the elves, Oberon, and his wife Titania appear in some very important works of medieval literature, such as Huon de Bordeaux and Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream."
-  Micha Lindemans, Elves



Faeries, Fairies, Fairy, Faery


Faeries:   Celtic Folklore

Faeries:   A Complete Guide to Faeries and Magical Beings.  Explore the Mystical Realm of the Little People.  By Cassandra Eason.  Weiser Books, 2002.  220 pages.  ISBN: 1578632676.  

Faeries:   Enchantment of the Faerie Realm: Communicate with Nature Spirits and Elementals.  By Ted Andrews.  Llewellyn Pubs., 2002.  240 pages.  ISBN:  0875420028. 

Faeries:   Faeries.  By Brian Froud.  Illustrated by Alan Lee.  Harry N. Abrams, 25th Anniversary Edition, 2002.  216 pages.  ISBN: 0810932741. 

Faeries:  Faeries: Deluxe Collector's Edition.  By Brian Froud.  Illustrated by Alan Lee.  Abrams, 2010.  208 pages.  ISBN: 0810995867.  

Faeries:   Faeries, Fairies: Quotes 

Faeries:  The Faeries' Oracle.   Paintings by Brian Froud and book by Jessica Macbeth.  Simon and Schuster, Books and Cards Edition, 2000.  Book: 208 pages.  66 Tarot Cards.   ISBN: 0743201116.  VSCL.     

Faeries:   Faeries Source   

Faeries:  The Fairies in Tradition and Literature.  By Katharine Mary Briggs.  Routledge Classics, 2nd Edition, 2002.  352 pages.  ISBN: 0415286018. 

Faeries:  Fairies World   Art, poetry, lore, information. 

Faeries:  The Fairy Bible: The Definitive Guide to the World of Fairies.  By Teresa Moorey.  Sterling, 2008.  400 pages.  ISBN: 1402745486.   

Faeries:   The Fairy Path

Faieries:  The Fairy Mythology.  Illustrative of the Romance and Superstition of Various Countries.  By Thomas Keightley.  1870.  Full-text online. 

Faeries:   Fairy Page

Faeries:   Fairy Pages.   By Eileen Holland. 

Faeries:   Good Faeries, Bad Faeries.   By Brian Froud.  Simon and Schuster, 1998.  192 pages. ISBN: 0684847817.  

Faeries:  The Great Encyclopedia of Faeries.  By Pierre Dubois.  Simon and Schuster, 2000.  184 pages.  ISBN: 0684869578.  Illustrated by Roland and Claudine Sabatier.

Faeries:  How to Find Flower Fairies.  By Cicley Mary Barkley. 

Faeries:   The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Fairies.   By Anna Franklin.  Vega, 2003.  288 pages.  ISBN: 1843336243.  

Faeries:   Images of Fairies - Google   

Faeries:  Images of Fairies - Bing  

Faeries:   Lady of the Earth 

Faeries:   Lore.  Fairies have wings and can fly, they dance in rings, live in hills, and are ruled by a queen. 

Faeries:   Medieval Fairies: Now You See Them, Now You Don't.  By Jeremy Harte.  At the Edge, 1998.  Webpage, 2010. 

Faeries:  The Real World of Fairies.  By Dora Van Gelder. 

Faeries:   Spirits, Fairies, Leprechauns, and Goblins: An Encyclopedia.  By Carol Rose.  W. W. Norton and Co., 1998.  384 pages.  ISBN: 0393317927. 

"The traditions and lore of fairies has existed in highly diverse cultures around the world for centuries or even millennia. In some cultures, fairies have been viewed as mischievous little sprites, whereas in other cultures they have been given god-like stature. Fairies are said to appear to humans in ways that meet their own cultural expectations. Fairies and fairy-like beings are also known as nature spirits, house spirits, dwarves, elves, gnomes, mermaids and leprechauns.  Fairies can be divided into four basic types based on their primary association with the aspects of the four esoteric elements: earth, fire, air and water. Earth fairies include gnomes and trolls. The symbol of the earth element and gnomes is the stone.  The word gnome is believed to have originally derived from the New Latin gnomus and the Greek genomus or earth-dweller. Gnomes are often thought to live underground or in subterranean passageways. Gnomes are known by many different names. Germans call them erdmanleins. In Denmark and Norway they are called nisse. In Britain they are called nains. Gnomes are usually depicted as small, bearded men who care for plants, trees and other aspects of the earth. Garden gnomes are the most well-known type of gnomes. They are believed to assist in the healthy growth of plants of all types. The use of representational statues of gnomes in gardens began in the mid-1800s. Garden gnome statues are most prevalent today in England, Germany and France."
-   Rose Greenwood, Nature Spirits: Guardians of the Earth 

"When I sound the fairy call,
Gather here in silent meeting,
Chin to knee on the orchard wall,
Cooled with dew and cherries eating.
Merry, merry, Take a cherry
Mine are sounder, Mine are rounder
Mine are sweeter, For the eater
When the dews fall.  And you'll be fairies all."
-   Robert Graves, Fairies and Fusiliers, 1918  



Faunus   Wikipedia article.  A Roman horned god of the forest, plains, and fields.  Linked with the Greek god Pan.  "Faunus was one of the oldest Roman deities, known as the di indigetes. According to the epic poet Virgil, he was a legendary king of the Latins who came with his people from Arcadia. His shade was consulted as a god of prophecy under the name of Fatuus, with oracles[1] in the sacred grove of Tibur, around the well Albunea, and on the Aventine Hill in ancient Rome itself.  Marcus Terentius Varro asserted that the oracular responses were given in Saturnian verse. Faunus revealed the future in dreams and voices that were communicated to those who came to sleep in his precincts, lying on the fleeces of sacrificed lambs. W. Warde Fowler suggested that Faunus is identical with Favonius,    one of the Roman wind gods (compare the Anemoi)."  - Wikipedia

February: Month of the Year.  Quotations, Poetry, Celebrations, Bibliography, Links, Gardening Chores.  Research by Mike Garofalo. 

Findhorn Book of Practical Spirituality: A Down-to-Earth Guide to a Miraculous Life.  By Kathy Gottberg.  Findhorn Press, 2003.  128 pages.  ISBN: 1844090078.  

Findhorn Foundation  Located in Scotland.  Eileen Caddy and Dorothy Maclean were founders of Findhorn Gardens in the 1960's. 

Findhorn Foundation - Wikipedia 

Four Elements, Four Elementals   Air, East,
Sylphs; Fire, South, Salamanders; Undines, Water, West; Gnomes, Earth, North. 

Four Elements, Four Elementals, Four Watchers: Table of Correspondences   




Ghosts:   Geist  

Ghosts:   Ghost

Ghosts:  The Ghost and Mrs. Muir   

Ghosts:  Poltergeist  "Poltergeist (from German poltern, meaning "to rumble", "to make a noise" and Geist, meaning "ghost" or "spirit") is in mythology and folklore a ghost, spirit, entity, demonic spirit or being that manifests itself by creating noise or moving objects.  Poltergeist manifestations have been reported in many cultures, and are part of folklore in all European nations, United States, Japan, Brazil and other countries."

Ghosts:   The White Lady

Ghosts:   Television Series:  Ghost and Mrs. Muir, Topper, New,


"In folklore, fiction, philosophy, and popular culture, a ghost is the soul or spirit of a deceased person, taken to be capable of appearing in visible form or otherwise manifesting itself to the living. Descriptions of the apparition of ghosts vary widely: the mode of manifestation can range from an invisible presence to translucent or wispy shapes, to realistic, life-like visions. The deliberate attempt to contact the spirit of a deceased person is known as necromancy, or in spiritism as a séance.    The belief in manifestations of the spirits of the dead is widespread, dating back to animism or ancestor worship in pre-literate cultures. Certain religious practices—funeral rites, exorcisms, and some practices of spiritualism and ritual magic—are specifically designed to appease the spirits of the dead. Ghosts are generally described as solitary essences that haunt particular locations, objects, or people with which they were associated in life, though stories of phantom armies, ghost trains, phantom ships, and even ghost animals have also been recounted."
-   Ghost 



Gardens of Spirit   By William Bradley 

Michael P. Garofalo, M.S.L.S., The Librarian of Gushen Grove, Red Bluff, California, aka The Green Wizard

Global Fairies    By Eileen Holland. 

Glossary of Paranormal Research 

Glossary of African Art and Rituals 

Glossary of Metaphysical Terms 



Gnomes: Wikipedia article

Gnomes: 30th Anniversary Edition.   By Will Huygen.  Illustrated by Rien Poortvliet.  Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2006.  212 pages.  ISBN: 0810954982.  

"Gnomes consist of a number of different types. The most common is the Forest Gnome who rarely comes into contact with man. The Garden Gnome lives in old gardens and enjoys telling melancoly tales. Dune Gnomes are slightly larger than their woodland breathren and choose remarkably drab clothing. House Gnomes have the most knowledge of man, often speaking his language. It is from this family that Gnome Kings are chosen. Farm Gnomes resemble their House brethen, but are more conservative in manner and dress. Siberian Gnomes have been more interbred than other Gnomes and associate freely with trolls. They are much larger than the other types and have an infinately more nasty nature. It is best never to evoke the ire of such Gnomes for they delight in revenge.   Gnomes are very widespread species, known to a number of human races. Germans name them Erdmanleins, except in the Alpine areas, where they are called Heinzemannchens. In Denmark and Norway they are Nisse; Nissen is a Swedish variation. In Brittany they are called Nains. Tontti to the Finns and Foddenskkmaend is their name in Iceland. The Polish call they by the familar Gnom. Bulgaria and Albania, however, use Dudje. In Hungary, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia, Gnomes are called Mano. The Dutch use Kabouter and the Belgian, Skritek."



Goblins, Nature Spirits and Earth Elementals Sculptures by David Goode  

Goblins: Wikipedia

"A goblin is a legendary evil or mischievous creature, described as a grotesquely evil or evil-like phantom. They are attributed with various (sometimes conflicting) abilities, temperaments and appearances depending on the story and country of origin. In some cases, goblins have been classified as constantly annoying little creatures somewhat related to the brownie and gnome.  According to The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, the name is probably derived from the Anglo-Norman gobelin (which was rendered, in Medieval Latin, as gobelinus, Norman goublin), which is probably a diminutive of Gobel, a name related to the word kobold (a German sprite). In addition, there also exist various other alternative spellings of the word goblin, including: Gobblin, gobeline, gobling, goblyn, gobelinus (Medieval Latin)."   -  Goblins


The Green Man: Bibliography, Links, Quotes, Resources, Notes, Lore, Myths.  Research by Mike Garofalo.  Associations:  Burry Man, Jack in the Green, Gawain and The Green Knight,  Green George, Green Lady, Greenman,  Green Man, Green Woman, Holly King, Leaf Man, Pan, Old Man of the Woods, Oak King, Robin Hood, Wood Sage. 

Green Witchcraft: Folk Magic, Fairy Lore, and Herb Craft.   By Ann Moura (Aoumiel).  St. Paul, Minnesota, Llewellyn Publications, 1996.  Index, appendices, bibliography, 274 pages.  ISBN: 1567186904.  An good introductory text on the way of the old religion.  Insightful observations on the history of religon by a historian.  All aspects of the Green Craft are covered: philosophy, magick, rituals, seasonal celebrations, folk lore, herbals, craft tools, etc.  For Aoumiel, the Green Craft involves pantheism, polytheism, reverence for nature, non-dogmatic beliefs and practices, home arts, and mostly solitary practice.  VSCL.  

Green Way Blog   By Michael P. Garofalo 

Green Way Research

Green Witchcraft: Folk Magic, Fairy Lore, and Herb Craft.   By Ann Moura (Aoumiel).  St. Paul, Minnesota, Llewellyn Publications, 1996.  Index, appendices, bibliography, 274 pages.  ISBN: 1567186904.  An good introductory text on the way of the old religion.  Insightful observations on the history of religon by a historian.  All aspects of the Green Craft are covered: philosophy, magick, rituals, seasonal celebrations, folk lore, herbals, craft tools, etc.  For Aoumiel, the Green Craft involves pantheism, polytheism, reverence for nature, non-dogmatic beliefs and practices, home arts, and mostly solitary practice.  VSCL.  

The Green Wizard's Reading List and Bibliography 

Grimoire for the Apprentice Wizard.  By Oberon Zell-Ravenheart.  Ranklin Lakes, NJ, New Page Books, 2004.  Index, 370 pages.  ISBN: 1564147118.  A detailed and practical instructional manual on the way to become a wizard.  Intended for a young reader but useful to anyone.  An excellent reference tool.   VSCL.   

Gushen Grove:  The word "Gushen" or "Gu Shen" is a phrase from the Chinese book by Lao Tze, The Tao Te Ching, and it means the "Valley Spirit - The Dark, Fertile, Empty, and Fathomless Ground of Beings, The Ever Giving Mysterious Mother of Life.  Our sacred circle (nemeton) is in the center of the North Sacramento Valley, south of Red Bluff, California. 



Heathens, Northern Religion - Notebooks of the Librarian of Gushen Grove  


Invoking the Elementals, Casting the Circle, Calling on the Quarters 

Iounn, Idun, Norse Goddess, Apples, Orchards 

Ishta-deva   Within Hinduism, an Ishta-deva or Ishta devata, literally "cherished divinity", "desired, liked, cherished" and devatā "godhead, divinity, tutelary deity" or deva "deity") is a term denoting a worshipper's favourite deity.



January: Month of the Year: Quotations, Poetry, Celebrations, Bibliography, Links, Gardening Chores.  Research by Mike Garofalo. 

Jötunn    A giant from Germanic/Norse mythology.   

Jotunheimer  In Germanic/Norse mythology, a realm outside our normal world (Utangardhs), to the East, of the elemental Air, where the Giants, Rock Giants, Ice Giants, preconscious forces, and some Wise Ones live. 

July: Month of the Year:  Quotations, Poetry, Celebrations, Bibliography, Links, Gardening Chores.  Research by Mike Garofalo. 

June: Month of the Year:  Quotations, Poetry, Celebrations, Bibliography, Links, Gardening Chores.  Research by Mike Garofalo. 


Return to the Main Index for this Webpage



Kami   Japanese nature spirits. 



Land Spirits (Landvaettir), Wights 

Lars (Roman nature spirits of the local property) 


Leprechauns: Wikipedia Article

Local Nature Spirits    By Medb Aodhamair, ADF Senior Druid, Feather River Grove, Chico, California 

Lughnasadh, Lammas, Mid-Summer Harvest Celebrations and Nature Spirits



Mabon, Alband Elfed, and Autumnal Equinox Celebrations and Nature Spirits

Magic of Trees: Nature Spirits, Lore, Myths, Sacred Stories

May: Quotations, Poetry, Celebrations, Bibliography, Links, Gardening Chores.  Research by Mike Garofalo. 

Medieval Fairies: Now You See Them, Now You Don't.  By Jeremy Harte.   

Menehune    Hawaiian dwarves. 



Mermaids   See Also  Udines, Selkies, Sirens 

Months and Seasons: Quotes, Poems, Lore, Mythology

Nature Mysticism   Research by Mike Garofalo. 

Nature Mysticsm: 
Awake in the Wild: Mindfulness in Nature as a Path of Self-Discovery.  By Mark Coleman.  Introduction by Jack Kornfield.  Novato, California, New World Library, 2006.  Bibliography, 243 pages.  ISBN:  9781930722552.  VSCL. 

Nature Mysticism:   Nature-Speak: Signs, Omens, and Messages in Nature.   By Ted Andrews.  Jackson, Tennessee, Dragonhawk Publishing, 2004.  Index, 445 pages.  ISBN: 1888767375.  VSCL. 

Nature-Speak: Signs, Omens, and Messages in Nature.   By Ted Andrews.  Jackson, Tennessee, Dragonhawk Publishing, 2004.  Index, 445 pages.  ISBN: 1888767375.  VSCL. 




Nature Spirits, Wights, Sprites, Elementals

Nature Spirits:   Calling Nature Spirits.   By Selena Fox. 

Nature Spirits:  Calling Nature Spirits: Inovations, Prayers, Rituals, Magic, Communicating

Nature Spirits:  Findhorn Foundation

Nature Spirits:  Healing the Heart of the Earth.  By Marko Pogacnick.  Findhorn Press. 

Nature Spirits:  The Little People and Nature Spirits Introduced

Nature Spirits:  Local Nature Spirits.   By Medb Aodhamair, ADF Priest. 

Nature Spirits:   Nature-Speak: Signs, Omens, and Messages in Nature.   By Ted Andrews.  Jackson, Tennessee, Dragonhawk Publishing, 2004.  Index, 445 pages.  ISBN: 1888767375.  VSCL. 

Nature Spirits:   Nature Spirit Magic.  By Larry Cornett. 

Nature Spirits:   Nature Spirits and Elemental Beings: Working with the Intelligence in Nature.  By Marko Pogacnik and Karen Werner.  Scotland, Findhorn Press, 2009.  This is a revised, updated and expanded version of the 1997 edition.  Bibliography, 253 pages.  ISBN: 1844091759.  1997: 1899171665.  VSCL. 

Nature Spirits:  Nature Spirits and Nature Forces.  By Max Heindel (1865-1919).  Foreword by August Foss Heindel.  Oceanside, California, The Rosicrucian Fellowship.  Full-text online.

Nature Spirits:   Nature Spirits and What They Say: Interviews with Verena Stael Holstein.  Edited by Wolfgang Weirauch.  Floris Books, 2005.  236 pages.  ISBN: 086315462X. 

Nature Spirits:   Nature Spirits, Devas, Elementals, and Trees.  Crystal Links. 

Nature Spirits:   Nature Spirits from the Hedge of Keltrina   By C. Leigh McKinley 

Nature Spirits:    Nature Spirits of the World     Mythology's MythingLinks

Nature Spirits:   Nature Spirits - Google Search 

Nature Spirits:   Nature Spirits: Guardians of the Earth.  By Rose Greenwood. 

Nature Spirits:   Nature Spirits of the Trees: Interviews with Verena Stael Von Holstein.  Edited by Wolfgang Weirauch.  Illustrated by Gundrun Hofrichter and Jesus Perez.  Translated by Matthew Barton.  Floris Books, 2009.  228 pages.  ISBN: 0863157033. 

Nature Spirits:   Nature Spirits of the World   Mythology's Mything Links by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.  

Nature Spirits:  Nature Spirits: Selected Lectures.  By Rudolf Steiner.  Rudolf Steiner Press, 2001.  197 pages.  ISBN:  1855840189. 

Nature Spirits:   The Seer's Path.  By C. Leigh McGinley and Mauro Bruno 

Nature Spirits:   Spirit Guides and Totems.   By Takatoka. 

Nature Spirits:   Spirits of the Earth: A Guide to Native American Nature Symbols, Stories, and Ceremonies.  By Bobby Lake-Thom, Medicine Grizzly Bear.  Plume, 1997.  Bibliography, index, 224 pages.  ISBN: 0452276500.  VSCL. 



Neck, Nixie, Nix, Nyx, Knucker  See Water Spirits 

Newgrange Megalithic Tomb in Newgrange, Ireland   3,200 BCE. 

Norns   Female spirits who control one's fate in Norse mythology.  In Norse mythology, a dís ("lady", plural dísir) is a ghost, spirit or deity associated with fate who can be both benevolent and antagonistic towards mortal people

Northern Tradition for the Solitary Practitioner.  A Book of Prayer, Devotional Practice, and the Nine Worlds of the Spirit.  By Galina Krasskova and Raven Kaldera.  Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, New Page Books, 2009.  Index, bibliography, appendices, 254 pages.  ISBN: 9781601630346.   VSCL. 

November: Month of the Year:  Quotations, Poetry, Celebrations, Bibliography, Links, Gardening Chores.  Research by Mike Garofalo. 

Nymphs   Minor nature goddesses in Greek myths, lovely young women, associated with particular locations.  Nymphs live in trees, woods, shady areas, by rivers and streams, groves, and mountains. 

Nymphs: Nature Spirits of Greece   Types of Nymphs:  Dryads (forests), Alseids (groves), Hadadryads (trees), Acheloids (rivers). 



October: Month of the Year:  Quotations, Poetry, Celebrations, Bibliography, Links, Gardening Chores.  Research by Mike Garofalo. 

One Old Druid's Final Journey: The Notebooks of the Librarian of Gushen Grove 



Pan, Greek nature spirit and god.  The legs of Pan are those of a goat.  He is associated with shepherds, fields, woods, wild areas, goves, wooden glens, flute music, and being in the company of nymphs.    

Pan:   "Pan is the God of the nature spirits. He is half man and half goat. The nature spirits are for the most part composed of etheric matter. Their job is to build the plants. They channel the etheric forces they receive into physically constructing the particular plant patterns they are receiving from the devas. They are the physical workers who carry out the architectural blueprints. They express great joy and delight in their work. They vary in size from a fraction of an inch to elves who are three to four feet tall."   Nature Spirits and Devas, Crystal Links

Pathways in the Green Valley Blog  



Plant Spirits: Herbs, Shrubs, Trees

Plant Spirits:   Plants of Love : Aphrodisiacs in Myth, History, and the Present.   By Christian Ratsch.   Ten Speed Press, 1997.  208 pages.   ISBN: 0898159288.  

Plant Spirits:   Cunningham's Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs.  By Scott Cunningham.  St. Paul, Minnesota, 1989.  Index, glossary, appendices, 318 pages.  VSCL.  ISBN:  0875421229.  VSCL. 

Plant Spirits:   Nature Spirits of the Trees: Interviews with Verena Stael Von Holstein.  Edited by Wolfgang Weirauch.  Illustrated by Gundrun Hofrichter and Jesus Perez.  Translated by Matthew Barton.  Floris Books, 2009.  228 pages.  ISBN: 0863157033. 

Plant Spirits:   Plant Spirit Shamanism: Traditional Techniques for Healing the Soul.  By Ross Heavern, Howard G. Charing, and Pablo Amaringo.  Destiny Books, 2006.  280 pages.  ISBN: 1594771189. 

Plant Spirits:   The Spirit of Gardening 

Pomona: Roman Goddess of Orchards, Fruit and Plenty   Wood Nymph. 

Priapus   A Discourse on the Worship of Priapus.  By Richard Payne Knight.  1786. 

Primitive Spirits and Ghosts

Pulling Onions by Mike Garofalo   Aphorisms of a gardener. 



Qigong, Chinese Yoga, Taoist Spirituality

Quotes for Gardeners.  Over 3,300 quotes arranged by over 140 topics.  Complied by Michael P. Garofalo.  



Realms of the Dragons:  Lore, Practices, Quotations, Bibliography

Ripening Peaches: Taoist Studies and Practices   

Roman Pagan Religion   Roman Hearth of household and local nature/land spirits. 



Sacred Circles: Bibliography, Links, Quotations, Resources, Sacred Circle Garden 

Samhain, Halloween, Ancestor's Day, Day of the Dead Celebrations and Nature Spirits    This day is considered to be the most auspicious day in the year for making contact with Nature Spirits. 

Salamanders, Fire, South. 

Salamanders - Legendary Creatures   

Satyrs:  Fertility spirits of Greece, Satyroi, Daimones (Spirits) of the coutryside and woodlands.  Associated with Dionysos.  Latin: Fauni and Satyri. 

Scandinavian Folklore  

The Secret Life of Nature: Living in Harmony with the Hidden World of Nature Spirits from Fairies to Quarks.  By Peter Tompkins.  Harper One, 1997.  240 pages.  ISBN:  0062508474.   

Selkie Folk of the Orkney Islands  

Selkies, Sirens and Others  

Selkies - Wikipedia  Seals that can shed their skins and become humans.  From Icelandic, Irish, and Scottish stories. 

September: Month of the Year: Quotations, Poetry, Celebrations, Bibliography, Links, Gardening Chores.  Research by Mike Garofalo. 

Sex Magick: Bibliography, Links, Quotes, Notes  



Shamans, Spirit Walkers, Spirit Guides and Healers, Wizards, Druids

The Mysteries of Druidry: Celtic Mysticism, Theory and Practice.  By Brendan Cathbad Myers, Ph.D.  Foreword by Isaac Bonewits.  Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, New Page Books, 2006.  Notes, Index, 236 pages.  ISBN: 1564148785.  VSCL. 

One Old Druids Final Journey: The Notebooks of the Librarian of Gushen Grove.  By Mike Garofalo. 

Separate Reality.  By Carlos Castaneda.  Washington Square Press, 1991, 1973.  272 pages.  ISBN: 0671732498. 

Shaman, Healer, Sage: How to Heal Yourself and Others with the Energy Medicine of the Americas.  By Alberto Villoldo.  Crown Archetype, 2000.  256 pages.  ISBN:  0609605445.  

Taliesin: The Last Celtic Shaman.  By John Matthews, with additional material by Caitlin Matthews.  Rochester, Vermont, Inner Traditions, 1991, 2002 (2nd Edition).  Index, extensive bibliography, 357 pages.  ISBN: 9780892818693.  VSCL. 

Urban Shaman.  By Serge K. King.  Fireside Books, 2nd Edition, 1990.  256 pages.  ISBN: 0671683071. 

Walkers Between the Worlds:  The Western Mysteries from Shaman to Magus.  By Caitlin and John Matthews.  Rochester, Vermont, Inner Traditios, 1985, 2003.  Bibliography, index, 441 pages.  ISBN: 0892810912.  VSCL. 

The Way of the Shaman.  By Michael Harner.  Harper One, 1980, 1990.  208 pages.  ISBN: 0062503731. 





Sidhe, Shee, Lordly Ones, People of the Mounds

Sidhe (Shee)  

Sidhe (Shee) - History 

Sideh (Shee) - Images 


"The people known as "The Sidhe" or people of the mounds, or "The Lordly Ones" or "The Good People" were descended from the "Tuatha de Danann" who settled in Ireland millennia ago and in being defeated by the Milesians they retreated to a different dimension of space and time than our own, believed to be living under mounds and fairy raths and cairns,  and also the land of "Tír na nÓg" a mythical island to the west of Ireland.  Placenames in Ireland with the pre-nouns Lis, Rath, and Shee are associated with these people for example Lismore, Lisdoonvarna, Sheemore, Rathfarnham etc.  Down through the ages the Sidhe have been in contact with mortals giving protection, healing and even teaching some of their skills to mortals - Smithcraft or the working of metals being one such skill.  Cuillen (Culann) is one such sidhe smith who has been told of in the legends of Cúchulainn and the later legends of Fionn mac Cumhail.  The Gaelic word or síog refers to these otherworldly beings now called fairies.  The Irish fairy is not like the diminutive fairies of other European countries, the Sidhe are described as tall and handsome in all accounts, also they are dressed very richly and accounts of their halls are of richly decorated places with sumptuous foods and drinks.  The Sidhe are generally benign until angered by some foolish action of a mortal.  Many trees and mounds are considered under their protection and if a mortal destroys or damages these then a curse is put upon himself and his family.  In some parts of the countryside people would not build their houses over certain "fairy paths" because of the type of disturbances which would ensue."  -  History of the Sidhe



Sirens   Female water spirits in Greek mythology with the wings of a bird who seduce and are dangerous to men.  

The Spirit of Gardening    3,500 quotes arranged by 140 Topics  

Spirits, Fairies, Leprechauns, and Goblins: An Encyclopedia.  By Carol Rose.  W. W. Norton and Co., 1996.  Bibliography, 369 pages.  ISBN: 0393317927.  VSCL. 

Spirits of the Earth: A Guide to Native American Nature Symbols, Stories, and Ceremonies.  By Robert Lake-Thom.  Plume, 1997.  224 pages.  ISBN: 0452276500. 

Sprites (Creatures)    

Sylphs, Air, East



Tarot: Bibliography, Links, Resources, Notes, Recommendations 

Telesco, Patricia and Rowan Hall.  Animal Spirit: Spells, Sorcery and Symbols from the Wild.  New Page Books, 2002.  221 pages.  ISBN: 1564145948.

Teutonic Magic:  The Magical and Spiritual Practices of the Germanic People.  By Kveldulf Gundarsson.   Loughborough, Thoth Publications, 2nd Revised Edition, 2007.  Appendices, 341 pages.  ISBN: 1870450221.  VSCL. 


Trubshaw, Bob.  Fairies and their Kin.  1998.  Internet website, 2010:

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (1892 – 1973)  English professor, linguist, and author of The Hobbit (1939) and Lord of the Rings (1954). 




Trees:   Nature Spirits of the Trees: Interviews with Verena Stael Von Holstein.  Edited by Wolfgang Weirauch.  Translated by Matthew Barton.  Illustrated by Gudrun Hofrichter and Jesus Perez.  Edinburg, England, Floris Books, 2009.  228 pages.  ISBN: 0863157033.  VSCL. 

Honored Faerie Trees   "Tree Fauns are male tree spirits.  They are said to be kindly, wise and reserved.  Open to sensitive women and may court their souls.  Tree Nymphs are female tree spirits.  They are said to be more playful and adventurous with humans.   May fall in love with a human man." 

Trees:   Trees

Trees:  Tree Spirits: What are Tree Spirits.  Louise Heyden.   

Trees:   Tree Worship  

Trees: Lore, Myths, Magick, Legends Esoterica.  Bibliography, links, quotes, notes.  

Trees:   Trees: Quotations, Poems, Sayings





Udines: Lessons from the Realm of the Water Spirits.  By William R. Mistele.  North Atlantic Books, 2010.  320 pages. ISBN: 1556439083. 


Undines, Ondine, Water, West 

Unicorns, Fairies, Elementals, and Nature Spirits


Vanaheimr  In Germanic/Norse mythology, a realm outside our normal world (Utangardhs), to the West, of the elemental Water, sources of peace, plenty, fertility, joy, prophesy, spirit journeys (Seidh), death, and the Goddess Freyja.   

Vaettir, Wights, Norse Religion  

"Vættir (Old Norse; singular Vættr) or wights are nature spirits in the Norse religion. These nature spirits divide up into 'families', including the Álfar (elves), Dvergar (dwarves), Jötnar (giants), and even gods, the Æsir and Vanir, who are understood to be prominent families among them. The term 'families' (ættir) is often translated as 'clans' or 'races'. These families sometimes intermarried with each other, and sometimes with humans. Sjövættir (sea spirits) are guardians of the specific waters. The tomte or nisse is a solitary vätte, living on the farmstead. He is usually benevolent and helpful, which can not be said about a mischievous illvätte. However he can cause a lot of damage if he is angry, such as killing livestock. The Old Norse term vættir and its English cognate wights literally mean 'beings' and relate etymologically to other forms of the verb to be, like was and were. Vættir and wights normally refer to supernatural 'beings', especially landvættir (land spirits), but can refer to any creature. The Norwegian vetter is used much in the same way as the Old Norse vættir, whereas the corresponding word in Swedish or Danish is väsen or væsen (being), also akin to was and were."  
-   Vaettir, Wights, Norse Religion  


Vanir - Norse Mythology   Information on the main Vanir spirits/gods/goddesses. 

Via Positiva, Nature Mysticism 

VSCL =  Valley Spirit Center Library, Red Bluff, California.  Mike Garofalo is the Librarian of Gushen Grove. 

Walkers Between the Worlds:  The Western Mysteries from Shaman to Magus.  By Caitlin and John Matthews.  Rochester, Vermont, Inner Traditios, 1985, 2003.  Bibliography, index, 441 pages.  ISBN: 0892810912.  VSCL. 



Water Spirits, Water Nymphs, Nixies, Mermaids   

Water Spirits:   Neck, Nixie, Nix, Nyx, Knucker 

Water Spirits:   Rhinemaidens from Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen.  

Water Spirits:   Spirits of the Water

Water Spirits:  Waterspirits (Wakčéxi) by Richard L. DieterleAmerican Indian: Dakota 

Water Spirits:   Water Spirits Legends   Lorelei, Water Nixes, Merrow, Melusina, Mermaid Wife 

Water Spirits:  Watersprite (Näcken) by Erik Johan Stagnelius




Way of the Shaman.  By Michael Harner.  Harper San Francisco, 1990.  208 pages.  ISBN:  0062503731.

The White Goddess: A Historical Grammar of Poetic Myth.  By Robert Graves.  New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1948, 1975.  Index, 511 pages.  ISBN: 0374504938.  VSCL. 


Wight is a Middle English word, from Old English wiht, and used to describe a creature or living sentient being. It is akin to Old High German wiht, meaning a creature or thing.  In its original usage the word wight described a living human being.  More recently, the word has been used within the fantasy genre of literature to describe undead or wraith-like creatures: corpses with a part of their decayed soul still in residence, often draining life from their victims. Notable examples of this include the undead Barrow-Wights from the works of J. R. R. Tolkien and the wights of Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game.  The English word is cognate with other Germanic words like Dutch wicht, German Wicht, Old Norse vættir, and Swedish vätte. Modern High German Wicht means 'small person, dwarf,' and also 'unpleasant person,' while in Low German the word means 'girl.' The Wicht, Wichtel or Wichtelchen of Germanic folklore is most commonly translated into English as an imp, a small, shy character who often does helpful domestic chores when nobody is looking (as in the Tale of the Cobbler's Shoes). These terms are not related to the English word witch."  

"Heathens may form relationships with local deities and other wights. “Wight” is a general term for sentient being, but it is widely used today with specific reference to the spiritual beings who are neither god nor human (although both are, technically, wights). For many Heathens, the most regularly encountered wight is the House Wight, who can help with beer brewing, protecting the home, and so on — or, if the wight feels unhappy or slighted, may be mischievous and cause problems. If there is a good relationship with a House Wight, everything runs much more smoothly.  Land Wights may be found in any feature of the landscape — a hill, a rock, a tree, a stream; sometimes they may be willing to communicate, but some wights are really not interested and are not at all welcoming."
-   Wights 



Wights and Ancestors.  By Jenny Blain. 

Wights, Dwarves, Giants, Norse Creatures: A Dictionary  

Wights, Lands Spirits (Landvaettir) 

Wind Spirits (Anemoi), Greek: Boreas (North), Notus (South), Zephyrus (West), Eurus (East)  

Working with Angels, Fairies and Nature Spirits.  By William Bloom.

The World Guide to Gnomes, Fairies, Elves and Other Little People.  By Thomas Keightley.  Gramercy, 2000.  560 pages.  ISBN: 0517263130. 

Yakshis, tree spirits or tree goddesses of Buddhism 


Yōkai (Japanese spirits)   Shape-shifting animals, ogres (Oni). 

Yule, Winter Solstice, Christmas Celebrations and Nature Spirits   We all hope that Santa's Elves are working hard to make for a delightful Christmas Day. 




Months and Seasons
Quotes, Poems, Saying, Lore, Myths, Holidays, Gardening Chores




















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Nature Spirits  
Quotations, Sayings, Aphorisms, Wisdom Lore



"Up the airy mountain
Down the rushy glen
We daren’t go a-hunting
For fear of little men."
-   William Allingham, The Fairies, 1850   


"Come cuddle close in daddy's coat
Beside the fire so bright,
And hear about the fairy folk
That wander in the night."
-   Robert Bird   


"When the winds of March are wakening the crocuses and crickets,
Did you ever find a fairy near some budding little thickets,...
And when she sees you creeping up to get a closer peek
She tumbles through the daffodils, a playing hide and seek."
-   Marjorie Barrows 


“There are more things in Heaven and Earth than are dreamed of in your philosophy.”
-   William Shakespeare


"The wall is silence, the grass is sleep, 
Tall trees of peace their vigil keep,
And the Fairy of Dreams with moth-wings furled
Plays soft on her flute to the drowsy world."
-   Ida Rentoul Outhwaite 


"Faeries, come take me out of this dull world,
For I would ride with you upon the wind,
Run on the top of the dishevelled tide,
And dance upon the mountains like a flame."
-   William Butler Yeats, The Land of Heart's Desire, 1894 


"Up the airy mountain
Down the rushy glen
We daren’t go a-hunting
For fear of little men."
-   William Allingham, The Fairies, 1850


"Soft moss a downy pillow makes, and green leaves spread a tent,
Where Faerie fold may rest and sleep until their night is spent.
The bluebird sings a lullaby, the firefly gives a light,
The twinkling stars are candles bright,
Sleep, Faeries all, Good Night."
-   Elizabeth T. Dillingham, A Faery Song


"Just living is not enough" said the butterfly fairy,
"one must have sunshine, freedom and a little flower."
-   Hans Christian Andersen



"Blind folk see the fairies.
Oh, better far than we,
Who miss the shining of their wings
Because our eyes are filled with things
We do not wish to see."
-   Rose Fyleman   


"We the largest Pines, the last of our kind, are Elders. We rule this forest and beyond. For untold winters and summers, many deer, moose, bear and grouse have paused and rested here. The big rock was dropped here long ago by the great Ice Spirit. It was a gift to the dwellers of this Land. Its power has helped us spread our seed to replenish our kind when your people cut us down. But our purpose is more than this and that is what your kind may never know. For you live in your bubble world of your machines and partial knowledge, a world bereft of spirit, ignorant of truth. As Elders, our link is with Spirit. Unbeknown to you we help bring spring’s life force into the creek dogwoods, into the hillside maples, into the trilliums in the rich valleys. We bring the regenerative force of Spirit through the power of the great granite block so that all may benefit from the warm breath of April and the strong sun of summer."
-   William Bradley


"We the Fairies, blithe and antic,
Of dimensions not gigantic,
Though the moonshine mostly keep us,
Oft in orchards frisk and peep us."
-   Thomas Randolph  


"Anno 1670, not far from Cirencester, was an apparition; being demanded whether a good spirit or a bad? returned no answer, but disappeared with a curious perfume and a most melodious twang. Mr W. Lilly believes it was a fairy."
-   John Aubrey



"I pass death with the dying and birth with the new-wash'd babe,
and am not contain'd between my hat and boots,
And I peruse manifold objects, no two alike and every one good,
The earth good and the stars good, and their adjuncts all good."
-   Walt Whitman, Song Of Myself, v. 7



"Princess Edane heard a voice singing on a May Eve like this, and followed half awake and half asleep, until she came into the Land of Faery, where nobody gets old and godly and grave, where nobody gets old and crafty and wise, where nobody gets old and bitter of tongue."
-   William Butler Yeats,  The Land of Heart's Desire, 1894 



"The pagan Celts of the ancient world were animists to the extent that they believed that all aspects of the natural world contained spirits, divine entities with which humans could establish a rapport.  According to classical sources, the Celts worshipped the forces of nature and did not envisage deities in anthropomorphic terms.  The numinous presence of deities undoubtedly informed the background to everyday life. Both archaeology and the literary record indicate that ritual practice in Celtic societies lacked a clear distinction between the sacred and profane in which rituals, offerings, and correct behaviour maintained a balance between gods and man and harnessed supernatural forces for the benefit of the group.  The pagan Celts perceived the presence of the supernatural as integral to their world. The sky, the sun, the dark places underground all had their spirits, life-forces and personalitidx.  Every mountain, river, spring, marsh, tree and rocky outcrop was endowed with divinity.  While both the Culture of Greece and the Culture of ancient Rome revolved around urban life, Celtic society was predominantly rural.  The close link with the natural world is reflected in what we know of the religious systems of Celtic Europe during the late 1st millennium BC and early 1st millennium AD.  As in many polytheistic systems, the localised spirits worshipped were those of both the wild and cultivated landscapes and their inhabitants: "god-types, as opposed to individual universal Gaulish deities, are to be looked for as an important feature of the religion of the Gauls," Anne Ross observed in examining the chain motif in pagan Celtic material "and the evidence of epigraphy strongly supports this conclusion."  Celts focused upon features of the immediate landscape: local mountains, forests, springs and animals.  Divine powers associated with the fertility of humans, of livestock and of crops were also objects of veneration.  Tribal territories were themselves held sacred and the ground and waters which received the dead were imbued with sanctity and revered by their living relatives.  Sanctuaries were sacred spaces separated from the ordinary world, often in natural locations such as springs, sacred groves or lakes. Many topographical features were deified as gods: many divine names refer to specific locations or geographical features, a clear indication of how closely Celtic societies identified with place. Small thank offerings were placed in domestic storage pits, while more elaborate deposits were left in specially dug ritual shafts and in lakes. These offerings linked the donor to the place in a concrete way, since complex and varied rituals involved the individual in personal contact with the sacred sites devoted to their gods. An image very different from the idea of druids administering a pan-Celtic religion."
Celtic Nature Worship 


"Tush, tush. Their walking spirits are mere imaginary fables."
-   C. Tourneur , The Atheist’s Tragedy,  iv, iii


"Even though the early Romans were not very concerned with the distinct personalities of each god within their pantheon, there was a rigid clarification of what each particular deity was responsible for. All aspects of life within Rome were guided not only by the pantheon of familiar names we are accustomed to, but to the household cult of the Dii Familiaris as well. With this belief set, every family or household was believed to be assigned a guardian spirit known as the Lar Familiaris (Lars). All family functions included these spiritual guardians in some form or another. Among these spirits that played a role in the spiritual life of Romans were Genii for men and junii for women. Each of these individual deities stayed with a person for life and represented the creative force that determined gender and allowed individuals to grow, learn and behave morally within society. The Dii Familiaris were so ingrained within the household that several spirits were assigned to specific responsibilities within a home. Forculus protected the door, Limentinus the threshold, Cardea the hinges, and Vesta the hearth."
-   Roman Religion  



"The Yakshis, or "tree goddesses," figure prominently in the decoration of early Buddhist monuments in India, such as the railings at the Bharhut (1st cent. AD) and Sanchi (1st-2nd cent. AD) stupas. Tree goddesses and other nature spirits were local divinities associated with particular places in the landscape, where they were venerated.  The typical yakshi stands underneath a tree, bending the branches down with her right hand, and touching the trunk with her left foot. This pose has been interpreted as dohada, a Sanskrit term meaning that a woman can make a tree bloom, linking the idea of femininity to that of fertility.  Dohada was commonly performed by a woman embracing a tree, dancing or singing for it, and touching it with her heel. This description fits perfectly with depictions of yakshis with their arms around trees, touching the base of the trunk with their left heels. The fifth-century poet Kalidasa gave a description of such a ceremony in which the feet were painted and the ankles decorated with rings, just like many of the yakshis depicted on the stupa railings, and then the woman kicked the tree with her left foot.  One may surmise that dohada, or the concept of females associated with fertile trees, was a long-standing non-Buddhist tradition."
Nature Spirits and Early Buddhism



"Certainly we can call upon the Nature Spirits to assist us in our lives, just as Amairgin did in ancient times, and continue to develop good rapport with the land where we live.  One way that Keltrian Druids develop and continue good rapport with the Nature Spirits is to invite them to our rituals, along with the Ancestors and the Gods. The invocation can be as simple or as poetic as the Druid or Grove wishes it to be. It can include spirits specific to your area by name, and/or spirits of nature in general. Many times an invocation to the Nature Spirits, besides taking care to include various general spirits, will include specific spirits appropriate to the working at hand or the season celebrated. For instance, at Samhain, one might be especially careful to invoke the Spirit of the Raven by name, because it is an animal that is sacred to the Morrigan, whom we honor with the Dagda at this time.  In addition to invocation, offerings to the spirits of the land and the Goddess Sovereignty, at a specific place designated for such, help to keep an individual Druid or an entire working Grove in favor with their particular area. A stream or pond, or even the base of a special tree, can be a wonderful place to designate for offerings to the Land. Some traditional Irish offerings to the Land Spirits that you might consider are pouring a few drops of whiskey on the ground, or milk, or perhaps leaving a bit bread."
-   Nature Spirits from the Hedge of Keltrina  



"Early fourteenth century English literature appears to distinguish fairies from dwarves (goblin-like entities who lived in burial mounds); from brownies or hobgoblins (who lived in houses near the hearth and performed domestic tasks); and from the fairy damsel or White Lady who was regarded as a benevolent guardian spirit or genius loci (Pemberton 1997). Further on the ‘fringes’ of such lore were mermaids, water spirits and sundry giants and monsters. Broadly speaking, these Middle English accounts conform broadly to the Anglo-Saxon categories of elves, dwarves and pucks (Griffiths 1996:47–54), so seem to represent some continuity of belief. Nevertheless, the roots of little folk are rather tangled. The notable historian of medieval religion and magic, Keith Thomas concludes that ‘Ancestral spirits, ghosts, sleeping heroes, fertility spirits and pagan gods can all be discerned in the heterogenous fairy lore of medieval England’ (Thomas 1971: 724). Shakespeare’s Titania and Oberon are King and Queen of the blithe subjects of the fairy kingdom forming part of the supernatural spectrum of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Such benevolent fairies have become the current archetype and today’s children are brought up to think of fairies as diminutive beings of kindly disposition. However, accounts of medieval fairies show them to have been neither small nor particularly kindly. For many people, fairies were spirits against which they had to guard themselves by ritual precautions. By the Elizabethan era, town dwellers seem to have consigned such beliefs to the realms of childhood but there is clear evidence that the country people of the British Isles continued to show an ‘astonishing reverence’ for the fairies and dared not ‘name them without honour’ (Thomas 1971: 726 citing John Penry’s Three Treatises concerning Wales c.1773)."
-   Bob Trubshaw, Fairies and their Kin, 1998 



Besides the Autumn poets sing
A few prosaic days
A little this side of the snow
And that side of the Haze --

A few incisive Mornings --
A few Ascetic Eves --
Gone -- Mr. Bryant's "Golden Rod" --
And Mr. Thomson's "sheaves."

Still, is the bustle in the Brook --
Sealed are the spicy valves --
Mesmeric fingers softly touch
The Eyes of many Elves --

Perhaps a squirrel may remain --
My sentiments to share --
Grant me, Oh Lord, a sunny mind --
Thy windy will to bear!"
-  Emily Dickinson, Besides the Autumn Poets Sing   



"Selkies (also known as silkies or selchies) are mythological creatures that are found in Faroese, Icelandic, Irish, and Scottish folklore.  They can shed their skin from seals to become humans. The legend apparently originated on the Orkney and Shetland Islands, where selch or selk(ie) is the Scots word for seal (from Old English seolh).  Selkies are able to become human by taking off their seal skins, and can return to seal form by putting it back on. Stories concerning selkies are generally romantic tragedies. Sometimes the human will not know that their lover is a selkie, and wakes to find them gone. Other times the human will hide the selkie's skin, thus preventing them from returning to seal form. A selkie can only make contact with one particular human for a short amount of time before they must return to the sea. Examples of such stories are the ballad, The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry and the movie The Secret of Roan Inish."
-   Selkies


"Animism (from Latin anima "soul, life")[1][2] is a philosophical, religious or spiritual idea that souls or spirits exist not only in humans but also in animals, plants, rocks, natural phenomena such as thunder, geographic features such as mountains or rivers, or other entities of the natural environment.  Animism may further attribute souls to abstract concepts such as words, true names or metaphors in mythology. Animism is particularly widely found in the religions of indigenous peoples, although it is also found in Shinto, and some forms of Hinduism, Sikhism, Pantheism and Neopaganism.  Throughout European history, philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas, among others, contemplated the possibility that souls exist in animals, plants and people, however the currently accepted definition of animism was only developed in the 19th century by Sir Edward Tylor, who created it as "one of anthropology's earliest concepts, if not the first."  Whilst having similarities to totemism, animism differs in that it, according to the anthropologist Tim Ingold, focuses on individual spirit beings which help to perpetuate life, whilst totemism more typically holds that there is a primary source, such as the land itself, or the ancestors, who provide the basis to life. Certain indigenous religious groups, such as that of the Australian Aborigines are more typically totemic, whilst others, like the Inuit are more typically animistic in their worldview."
-   Animism: Wikipedia Article 



Besides the ése, Anglo-Saxons also believed in other supernatural beings or "wights", such as elves, and household deities, known as Cofgodas.  These would guard a specific household, and would be given offerings so that they would continue. After Christianisation, it is believed that the belief in Cofgodas survived through the form of the fairy being known as the Hob. Similar beliefs are found in other pagan belief systems, such as the Lares of Roman paganism and the Agathodaemon of Ancient Greek religion.   In Anglo-Saxon England, elves (aelfe) were viewed as malevolent beings who could bring harm to humans. In the 10th century Metrical Charm "Against A Sudden Stitch" (Wið færstice), it states that various forms of sickness, such as rheumatism, could be induced by "elfshot" - arrows fired by elves. They were believed to possess a type of magic known as siden.  Alongside the elves, other supernatural beings included dwarves (or dweorgas), ettins (or eoten) and dragons.  
-   Anglo-Saxon Polytheism 



"There has fallen a splendid tear
From the passion-flower at the gate.
She is coming, my dove, my dear;
She is coming, my life, my fate.
The red rose cries, "She is near, she is near;"
And the white rose weeps, "She is late;"
The larkspur listens, "I hear, I hear;"
And the lily whispers, "I wait."
-  Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Maud, (Part 1, XXII, 10)



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How to Communicate with Nature Spirits 
Invocations, Prayers, Calling, Requests, Rituals, Magic


Calling Nature Spirits.   By Selena Fox.   

Casting the Circle, Opening the Four Gates 

Communicating with Nature Spirits.  By the Coven of Cythrawl. 

Connecting to Nature's Spirit.   By Sylvie Shaw. 

Contacting Nature Spirits

How to Contact Elemental Beings.  By Tanis Helliwell. 

How to Invoke the Spirits

Invoking the Elements

Nature Spirit Magic.  By Larry Cornett.  Mirror Site 1 

Spirit Guides and Totems.   By Takatoka. 


Techniques and Methods for Welcoming Nature Spirits to Your Home and Gardens 
By Mike Garofalo
The Librarian of Gushen Grove, Red Bluff, California

1.  Keep your home, yard and garden neat, clean and well maintained.  Keep your indoor altar and/or outdoor altar or ritual space (nemeton) clean and appropriate for the season and month.  Set appropriate offerings and enticements on your home altar to please the local nature spirits.  Just as you would tidy up your home, yard and garden for a visit by a friend or family member, do the same for the nature spirits. 

2.  A welcoming, hospitable, respectful and courteous manner towards the local nature spirits is very important.  Be a bit reserved yet courteous.  You need to slowly build dignified and friendly relationships with Wights, Penates, Elves, Ghosts, and House Spirits by showing respect and hospitality.  Otherwise, if annoyed, these nature spirits can be playful tricksters or mischievous; and a few, like a few humans, malevolent. 


"Mist-clad in the light of the moon
Starspun seekers – I search for thee!
Faery light – I ask thy boon
Of branch and thorn and Elder tree!
Wood woven creatures, shadow weavers
River keepers – come to me!
Just beyond reaching
Never in keeping
Spirits of Faery – I call unto thee!
Wind-hewn wildness
Dark and brightness
Spiral enchantments – born of the sky!
Cradle me with elven hands,
Abide with me, thy human child!"
-   Lady of the Earth, Fairy Invocation  



"I am a stag: of seven tines,
I am a flood: across a plain,
I am a wind: on a deep lake,
I am a tear: the Sun lets fall,
I am a hawk: above the cliff,
I am a thorn: beneath the nail,
I am a wonder: among flowers,
I am a wizard: who but I
Sets the cool head aflame with smoke?
I am a spear: that roars for blood,
I am a salmon: in a pool,
I am a lure: from paradise,
I am a hill: where poets walk,
I am a boar: ruthless and red,
I am a breaker: threatening doom,
I am a tide: that drags to death,
I am an infant: who but I
Peeps from the unhewn dolmen, arch?
I am the womb: of every holt,
I am the blaze: on every hill,
I am the queen: of every hive,
I am the shield: for every head,
I am the tomb: of every hope."
-   Robert Graves, The White Goddess, 1948, Version of The Song of Amargin by Taliesin
    See also Taliesin: The Last Celtic Shaman by John Matthews.     
"Into the wild places we send our voices!
Unto the Wild Kins we make our call!
The Children of Earth come to the fire of magic to seek you,
To open our hearts to you, to make these offerings and seek your blessings.
By the might of the Mother of All and the wisdom of the Horned One
We call to you to come to our fire. 
Spirits of the Land ― stone and stream, soil and herb and shrub and tree,
All you we call to bear witness to this work, and to receive this offering."
-   Ian Corrigan, Draiocht, 2005, p. 275
"Spirits of Nature, the Sidhe, and the Fey,
I reach across the Veil with my words, and call to You.  
Spirits of the Animals, Bird and Beast, Fish and Fowl,
I call You into this Sacred Soil. 
Spirits of the Plants, Sacred and ancient Trees,
I call You into this Sacred Soil. 
Spirits of the Land, Earth, Water, Air and Fire,
I call You into this Sacred Soil. 
I call You with the stones of the mountain tops. 
I call You with the sand of the long, white beaches. 
I call You with the loam of the ancient forests. 
I bid You, Enter this Soil now. 
That we may be Blessed, Guided and Inspired
Be our Communion with You.  Felly y Bydded!"
-   Alban Elfed (Mabon, Autumnal Equinox) Ritual


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One Old Druid's Final Journey

The Notebooks of the Librarian of Gushen Grove

Neo-Pagan, Druid, Roman Hearth, and Green Spirituality
Contemplative and Magical Arts


The Spirit of Gardening

Advice from the Guides for a New Druid's Journey

Months and Seasons

Wheel of the Year, Seasonal Celebrations

Roman Hearth Neo-Pagan Religion

Lifestyle Advice for Wise Persons

Eight of Wands: Magick


Pathways in the Green Valley Blog

The Green Wizard's Reading List

Nature Mysticism


Ways of Walking

The Green Man

Opening the Four Gates

String Figures, String Art, Sting Games

Sacred Circles

Trees - Spirits

Tree of Life

The Triads: Wisdom Sayings

Nature Spirits

Cloud Hands

Valley Spirit Qigong

Cloud Hands Blog

Green Way Research

Eight of Wands

Who is the Librarian of Gushen Grove?

Trigrams - Bagua - I Ching

Above the Fog

Spirituality and Gardening 

Pulling Onions

Zen Poetry

Vally Spirit (Gu Shen)

Gushen Grove, Red Bluff, CA


























































































































Neopagans, Northern Religions, Heathens, Druids, OBOD, ADF, RDNA
Druidry, Heathenism, Roman Greek Egyptians Religion Magic and Lore,
German Norse Religions, Mystics, Taoists, Polytheists
Wicca, Wiccan, Pagans, Paganism, Nature Mystics, Earth Centered Religion
Goddesses, Goddess, Mother Earth, Gaiaa, Mother Nature Religion Religious Beliefs Worship
Red Bluff, Tehama County, North Sacramento Valley, Northern California, U.S.A.
Cities and small towns in the area: Oroville, Paradise, Durham, Chico, Hamilton City,
Corning, Rancho Tehama, Los Molinos, Vina, Tehama, Proberta, Gerber, 
Manton, Cottonwood, Olinda, Cloverdale, Dairyville, Bend, Centerville, Summit City
Anderson, Shasta Lake, Palo Cedro, Igo, Ono, Redding, Shasta, Colusa, Willows,
Richfield, Fall River, Montgomery Creek, Alturas, McCloud, Dunsmuir, Yreka, Happy Camp,
Shingletown, Burney, Mt. Shasta City, Weaverville, Williams, Chester, Orland,
Susanville, Weed, Gridley, Marysville, Yuba City, NorCalifia, CA, California.
Valley Spirit Grove, Valley Spirit Protogrove, Gushen Grove, Red Bluff, California
Neopagans, Northern Religions, Heathens, Druids, OBOD, ADF, RDNA
Druidry, Heathenism, Roman Greek German Religions, Taoists, Polytheists
Wicca, Wiccan, Pagans, Paganism, Nature Mystics, Earth Centered Religion
Goddesses, Goddess, Mother Earth, Gaiaa, Mother Nature Religion Religious Beliefs Worship

First published on the Internet on June 14, 2010. 

Last modified or updated on July 11, 2012. 

Send email to Mike Garofalo