Lughnasadh Celebrations

High Summer Feast Day, Lammas, Celtic Lughnasa, Greek Adonis Festival,
Summer Festival, Lughnasadh, August 1st, Mid-Summer Celebration
7th Celebration in the NeoPagan Holy Day Annual Cycle or Wiccan Wheel of the Year 

Valley Spirit Center, Red Bluff, North Sacramento Valley, California

General Preparations     Quotations     Bibliography     Links     Notes     Prayers     Poems     August

Research by
Michael P. Garofalo

September 22, 2010








Bibliography and Links
Lammas, Lughnasadh, High Summer Feast Day

Note:  A 4th version of this webpage will be completed by July 1, 2011.   



Ancient Ways: Reclaiming Pagan Traditions.  By Pauline Campanelli and Dan Campanelli.  St. Paul, Minnesota, Llewellyn Pubs., 1991.  256 pages.  ISBN: 0875420907.  VSCL.  Lammas: pp. 113-137.  One of my favorite books. 

Apple Lore and Facts.  By Susa Morgan Black, OBOD.  [We have varieties of apples ripening in August in Red Bluff, CA.]

Apple Branch in Dianic Tradition 

The Apple Branch: A Path to Celtic Ritual.  By Alexei Kondratiev.  Citadel, 2003.  320 pages.  ISBN: 0806525029. 

Apple Lore 

Apple Tree Wisdom

Ar nDraiocht Fein (ADF): A Druid Fellowship   The ADF is a legally recognized 501(C)3 Church, and the largest Druid organization in America.  ADF has open public celebrations of the Eight Holy Days of NeoPaganism and any spiritual seeker is welcome to attend.  For example, I attend the public ceremonies of the Feather River Grove in Chico, California.  I've been an ADF member since 2007.  I find their liturgical cycle and rituals to be spiritually uplifting, wholesome, life affirming, earth centered, ecologically positive, profound, polytheistic, and open minded. 

The Art of Ritual: A Guide to Creating and Performing Your Own Ceremonies for Growth and Change.  By Renee Beck and Sydney Barbara Metrick .  Berkeley, California, Celestial Arts, 1990.146 pages.  ISBN: 0890875820.  VSCL.    

Associations and Correspondences of Lammas, Lughnasa, Summer Fest  

Astaru Holidays   Germanic and Northern Heathens

August:  Quotes, Poems, Celebrations, Lore, Garden Chores   

Book of Pagan Prayer.  By Ceisiwr Serith.  San Francisco, California, Weiser Books, 2002.  Notes, annotated bibliography, appendices, 286 pages.  ISBN: 1578632552.  VSCL.  Begins with an essay titled "Why and How We Pray" (68 pages) and then a collection of over 500 prayers for NeoPagans. 

Calling the Quarters, Casting the Circle, Magickal Protective Sphere, Creating the Sacred Sphere  

Celebrate the Earth: A Year of Holidays in the Pagan Tradition.  By Laurie Cabot and Jean Mills.  Delta, 1994.  288 pages.  ISBN: 0385309201. 

Celebrating Lammas - School of the Seasons 

Celebrating Lammas - Wheel of the Year  By Cassandra Eason

Celebrating the Seasons of Life: Beltane to Mabon.  Lore, Rituals, Activities, and Symbols.  By Ashleen O'Gaea.  Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, New Page Books, 2005.  Bibliography, index, 219 pages.  ISBN: 1564147320.  A good study of four spring and summer Celebrations in the Wiccan-NeoPagan year.  Rich in details and ideas.  VSCL.  Lammas: pp. 97-134.  

Circles, Groves and Sanctuaries: Sacred Spaces of Today's Pagans.  Compiled by Dan and Pauline Campanelli.  St. Paul, Minnesota, Llewellyn Publications, 1993.  Resources, 268 pages.  ISBN: 0875421083.  Ideas for creating indoor and outdoor altars and sanctuaries.  VSCL.    

Corn Dolly 

Divination Methods: Tarot   Most Holy Day rituals include using some method for divination: Runes, Oghams, Tarot, Gazing, or Signs.  I use either the Voyager Tarot or the Crowley Thoth Tarot. 

Draioch: Rites of Celtic Sorcery.  By Ian Corrigan.  2005.  Republished by Jeffrey Wyndham, 2007.  Distributed by Lulu Press.  352 pages.  VSCL. 
Rev. Corrigan has been the Archdruid of Ar nDraiocht Fein (ADF): A Druid Fellowship

The Eight Seasonal Religious Celebrations of NeoPagans   

The Elements of Ritual: Air, Fire, Water and Earth in the Wiccan Circle.  By Deborah Lipp.  Llewellyn Pubs., 2003.  Illustrated edition.  288 pages.  ISBN: 073870301X. 

Exploring the Northern Tradition.  A Guide to the Gods, Lore, Rites, and Celebrations from the Norse, German, and Anglo-Saxon Traditions.  By Galina Drasskova.  Foreword by Swaim Wodening, cofounder of the Angelseaxisce Ealdriht.  Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, New Page Books, 2005.  Index, bibliography, notes, appendix, 200 pages.  ISBN: 1564147916.   VSCL. 

Fairies, Elves, Nature Spirits:  Lands Spirits, Alfs, Wights, Lars, Trolls, Dwarves, Sidhe, Devas, Otherworld, Little Folk, Ancestors, Ghosts 

Freymaxi, Hlaefmaesse, Thunormonath, Northern Tradition Harvest Celebration   Today the Astru (Germanic Heathens) observe this date as a celebration of their harvest with a blot to Freyr and a grand feast from the gardens and fields.  August is know as the Weodmonath: Month of the Weeds. 

The Green Man (Powers of Spring and Summer): Bibliography, Links, Quotes, Information, Lore, Myths, Role  

Gushen Grove:  The word "Gushen" or "Gu Shen" is a phrase from the Chinese book by Lao Tze, The Tao Te Ching (Chaper 6), and it means the "Valley Spirit" - The Dark, Fertile, Empty, and Fathomless Ground of Beings, The Ever Giving Mysterious Mother of Life.  Our sacred circle (nemeton) is in the center of the North Sacramento Valley, south of Red Bluff, California. 

Harvest Festivals 

High Days, Sacred Days in the Year, High Holy Days of NeoPaganism 

Hold a Lammas Harvest Festival by Patti Wigington 

Inanna  Sumerian Goddess:  Nin-anna "Queen of Heaven"  Goddess of sexual love, fertility, and warfare. 

Inanna and the Huluppu Tree  


Inanna/Ishtar - Google Images

In Nature's Honor: Myths and Rituals Celebrating the Earth.  By Patricia Montley.   Boston, Skinner House Books, 2005.  Index, 379 pages.  ISBN: 155896486X  VSCL. 

John Barleycorn

July:  Quotes, Poems, Celebrations, Lore, Garden Chores 

Labyrinths: Lore, Bibliography, Links, Resources, Quotes

Lammas: Celebrating Fruits of the First Harvest.   Anna Franklin and Paul Mason.  St. Paul, Minnesota, Llewellyn Pub., 2001.  Bibliography, index, 276 pages.  ISBN: 0738700940.  

Lammas Ritual by Asiya  Includes lore, symbolism and history. 

Lammas Ritual by Lady Bridget and Lady Therese 

Lammas Ritual by Scott Cunningham 

Lammas Ritual by the U.U. Church of Fort Lauderdale 

Lammas Rituals - Google 

Lammas Ritual on UTube, 8 Minutes

Lammas - Wikipedia   

Land Spirits, Nature Spirits:  Fairies, Elves, Alfs, Wights, Trolls, Dwarves, Sidhe, Devas, Otherworld, Little Folk, Ancestors, Ghosts 

Librarian of Gushen Grove, Michael P. Garofalo, M.S.L.S., Red Bluff, California, aka The Green Wizard

Links about Lughnasa, Lammas, First Harvest Festival 

Lugh the Long Handed

Lugh - Wikipedia

Lughnasadh or Lammas Ritual by Ancient Pathways

Lughnasadh or Lammas: Annotated Bibliography by Kathleen Jenks  

Lughnasadh Celebration on UTube, 19 Minutes 

Lughnasadh: Celtic Mysticism  

Lughnasadh: Ceremony of the Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids.  Pamphlet, 22 pages, 2001, OBOD.  Includes both a solo ceremony and a group ceremony, and a history of the holiday. 

Lughnasadh Prayers - Google  

Lughnasadh Rite by Rose.  Interesting blog by Rose about her work on the ADF Dedicants Coursework. 

Lughnasadh Ritual by Asaka 

Lughnasadh Ritual by Llwyn y Ser, The Grove of the Stars 

Lughnasadh Ritual: High Days Rituals of the Sonoran Sunrise Grove, ADF, Arizona

Lughnasadh Ritual, Llewellyn Encyclopedia

Lughnasadh Rituals of ADF Groves  5 Rituals are provided. 

Lughnasadh Rituals - Google 

Mithraic Mysteries   


Mithraism and Early Christianity, Particularly Roman Catholicism 

Mithraism: The Pagan Religion Similar to Christianity, Particularly Roman Catholicism

Months of the Year:  Quotes, Poems, Reading List, Links, Garden Chores, Holidays 

Myth*ingLinks' Lammas by Kathleen Jenks   Excellent links and information. 

The Mysteries of Druidry: Celtic Mysticism, Theory and Practice.  By Brendan Cathbad Myers, Ph.D.  Foreword by Isaac Bonewits.  Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, New Page Books, 2006.  Notes, Index, 236 pages.  ISBN: 1564148785.  VSCL. 

Nature Mysticism    

Nature Spirits
Fairies, Elves, Alfs, Wights, Lars, Trolls, Dwarves, Sidhe, Devas, Otherworld, Little Folk, Ancestors, Ghosts 

Neopagan Rites: A Guide to Creating Public Rituals that Work.  By Isaac Bonewits.  Llewellyn Publications, 2007.  240 pages.  ISBN: 0738711993.  VSCL. 

Northern Tradition for the Solitary Practitioner.  A Book of Prayer, Devotional Practice, and the Nine Worlds of the Spirit.  By Galina Krasskova and Raven Kaldera.  Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, New Page Books, 2009.  Index, bibliography, appendices, 254 pages.  ISBN: 9781601630346.   VSCL. 

The Obscure Goddess Online Directory and the A-Muse-ing Grace Gallery and the Art of Thalia Took

October:  Quotes, Poems, Celebrations, Lore, Garden Chores 

One Old Druid's Final Journey - Notebooks of the Librarian of Gushen Grove 

Order of Bards Ovates and Druids.   The largest Druid organization in the world.  A complete training program in print and audio versions, discussion groups, library, extensive resources.  I am a member of this Order as a Bardic Grade student.  The OBOD celebrates the Eight Holy Days of NeoPaganism.  I find their liturgical cycle and rituals to be spiritually uplifting, wholesome, life affirming, earth centered, ecologically positive, profound, polytheistic, and open minded.  OBOD is more orientated towards Celtic spirituality. 

Paganism: An Introduction to Earth-Centered Religions.  Joyce and River Higginbotham.  Woodbury, Minnesota, Llewellyn, 2004.  Bibliography, index, 272 pages.  ISBN: 0738702226. 

Pathways in the Green Valley Blog.   By Michael Garofalo. 

Peaches of Immortality, Chinese Taoist Lore, Queen Mother of the West, Xi Wang Mu

Preparing for the Autumnal Equinox Celebration, Mabon, Alban Elfed 

Roman Pagan Holy Days, Seasonal Celebrations, Religious Customs, Roman Pagan Hearth 

Sabbats and Estbats:  Lady of the Earth

The Sabbats: A New Approach to Living the Old Ways.  By Edain McCoy.  St. Paul, Minnesota, Llewellyn Pubs., 1994.  Index, 255 pages.  ISBN: 1567186637.  Practical suggestions for celebrating the pagan holidays in the Wheel of the Year.  VSCL. 

Sacred Circles  Bibliography, Links, Quotes, Notes.  Photos of the Valley Spirit Center sacred circle construction project. 

Sacred Fire, Holy Well: A Druid's Grimoire.  By Ian Corrigan.  Tuscon, Arizona, ADF Publishing, Second Edition, 2009.  Gaeilge glossary, bibliography, 318 pages.  ISBN: 0976568128.  VSCL.  Excellent resources for liturgy. 

September:  Quotes, Poems, Celebrations, Lore, Garden Chores 

Sexual Magic: Bibliography, Links, Quotes

Ceisiwr Serith's website and links on Americanism.  Fourth of July Celebrations. 

The Solitary Druid: A Practitioner's Guide.   By Robert Lee (Skip) Ellison.   New York, Kensington Pub. Co,., Citadel Press, 2005.   Index, bibliography, appendices, 262 pages.  ISBN:  0806526750.  VSCL.  Reverend Ellison has been the Archdruid of Ar nDraiocht Fein (ADF) and Dean of Divination and Beast Mastery - The Grey School of Wizardry.  A solitary ritual for Lughnasadh is provided by Rev. Ellison on pp. 145-155.   

Solitary Lammas Ritual

Solitary Witch: The Ultimate Book of Shadows for the New Generation.  By Silver Ravenwolf.  St. Paul, Minnesota, 2005. Notes, bibliography, appendices, 590 pages.   ISBN: 0738703192.  VSCL. 

The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess.  Rituals, invocations, exercises, and magic.  By Starhawk.  10th Anniversary Edition, Revised and updated.  Bibliography, index, 288 pages.  VSCL.  ISBN: 0062508148.  A very influential work on Goddess worship and pagan religious practices. 

The Spirit of Gardening   3,400 quotes, poems, sayings, and ideas about gardening, gardens, and the Green Way.  Materials organized by 140 topics; and a fully indexed collection with a search engine.  Online since 1999.  Over 6MB of text.  Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo

Summer  -  Quotes, Poems, Sayings and Quips for Gardeners  

To Burn in Sacrifice, A Lammas Ritual.   By Melanie Fire Salamander 

Valley Spirit Sacred Circle, Red Bluff, California 

Walkers Between the Worlds:  The Western Mysteries from Shaman to Magus.  By Caitlin and John Matthews.  Rochester, Vermont, Inner Traditios, 1985, 2003.  Bibliography, index, 441 pages.  ISBN: 0892810912.  VSCL. 

Wheel of the Year: Living the Magical Life.  By Pauline Campanelli.  Illustrated by Dan Campanelli.  St. Paul, Minnesota, Llewellyn Publications, 1989, 1993.  ISBN: 0875420915.  VSCL. 

Wicca: A Guide for the Solitary Practitioner.  By Scott Cunningham.  Llewellyn's Practical Magick Series.  St. Paul, Minnesota, Llewellyn Publications, 1994.  Index, bibliography, glossary, 218 pages.  VSCL.  ISBN: 0875421180.  A very good introduction to the Craft by an open-minded person.  


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General Preparations
Lammas, Lughnasadh, Summer Fest, First Harvest Celebration


1.  Collect corn husks, dry and store in shade.  "Corn" was a generic term for cereal crops (i.e., wheat, barley, oats), and New World corn was added after 1520.  Our non-irrigated winter wheat is harvested in June and July where I live.  We can collect wild wheat stalks and seeds, tie, and hang in shade.  Make a corn dolly and keep until the Yule Celebration.  We can pick fruit (apricots, berries, figs and plums) and dry them.  Many kinds for fruit are ripe in late July, so place some of these on your home altar.  Many garden herbs are at their peak and ready for harvesting to make herbal remedies, air fresheners, use in herbal magic, and for decoration.  There are hundreds of good books and websites on the magical, sacramental, and health uses of herbs. 

2.  Read about and make a loaf of bread.  Loaves of bread are a traditional part of the First Harvest Feast.  Break bread into four pieces and place at each of the Four Corners altars.   Lammas means "Loaf Mass" in the Welsh language.  Sharing bread is a common feature of a Lammas celebration.  What is the role of baking bread in human culture?  Find a really good bakery in your area. 

3.  This is a good month for celebrating.  We, in America, celebrate the Fourth of July, and many counties have their annual Fairs.  Be try to be very thankful for our peaceful and bountiful life in America.  We are thankful for our religious freedom and the 1st Amendment.  Americanism and patriotism are forms of a popular religion - we should reflect on our symbols and heritage.  Take a look at Ceisiwr Serith's website and links on Americanism.  Hang up the flags, sing, play, smile, celebrate.  Remember our fallen heroes, brave soldiers, and hardworking Ancestors. 

4.  Prepare for the "Games" of the First Harvest Feast.  The Greek Olympics and Roman Heracleia games were held at this time.  What games might you play?  Horseshoes, boche ball, races, swimmng races, croquet, volleyball, badminton, frisbee, baseball, wrestling, spear throwing, arrow shooting, weight tossing ....  Get your equipment and playing court ready, and practice. 

5.  Renew supplies of your favorite ritual-recreational drug: coffee, tobacco, alcohol (whiskey, beer, wine), fuzzy herbs, etc.. Beer and whiskey, made from barley, are often part of joyful summer harvest feast celebrations.  Read about the song John Barleycorn.

6.  Think about the power of the sun.  How can we use solar power?  Dry your clothes in the sun.  Build a simple box with screen so you can use the power of the summer sun to dry your fresh fruit. 

7.  Do some thinking, reflection, or discursive meditation on various themes.  Here are some themes to reflect upon:  What are the relations between Chaos, Gaia, and Eros?  What role does more sunlight play in bringing forth the bountiful harvest?  What does summertime mean to you?   

8.  Implement new ways to stay cool that use less electrical energy.  Switch to an evaporative cooler in areas with low humidity.  Keep all windows covered.  Carefully place fans to circulate air indoors.  Work early in the morning and rest in the hot afternoon.  Drink plenty of water.  If your nights are cooler, under 80, draw the cool air indoors at night.  A gable fan can really help reduce heat indoors. 

9.  Check out astronomical details about the rising of the Dog Star, Sirius, in late July, and the beginning of the "Dog Days of Summer."  

10.  The Celtic God, Luga (Lugh, Long Hand), is noted for his high level skills in many arts and crafts: smith, carpenter, bard, healer, herbalist, magician, gamesman, spear throwing, military leadership, etc.  Get out your paintbrush.  Fix something in the yard or garden or home.  Tidy up the garden.  Create something, make something.  Start learning a new practical skill or craft.  Clean your weapons and practice with the weapons. 

11.  Working and meditating in the garden is an important facet of my spiritual path.  I need to regularly reconnect with the earth and the autumn season outdoors. I live in Red Bluff, California, USDA Zone 9, Northern Hemisphere.  My late September gardening chores might be quite different from yours, depending upon where you live.  Tend your garden daily.  Water your garden each day.  Weed your vegetable garden.  Harvest squash, tomatoes, peppers and other vegetables from your garden each day.  Review your own lists of chores for July and August, and act accordingly.   

12.  Read about Lammas, Lughnasadh, and summer festivals around the world.  Add notes and links to books, magazines, and webpages on the subject.  See my bibliography and links aboveVisit your local public library or college library to obtain access to books, media and magazines on the subject.  Study about ancient Indo-European religions.  I update my Months webpages on July and September

13.  Add some appropriate Lammas, Lughnasadh, or Mid-Summer songs, chants, prayers, reflections, invocations, or poems to your Neo-Pagan Craft Journal, Book of Shadows, blog, website, or Ritual Handbook.  Write in your personal journal.  Most spiritual seekers keep a notebook, journal or log as part of their experimental, creative, magical and experiential work. 

14.  Stay at home.  Improve your home, backyard, or garden.  Eliminate long driving trips.  Do you really need to "Go" anywhere?  Do you really need to fly by airplane to another country?  Explore your backyard, neighborhood, local community, nearby city, county wide area, regional area within 100 miles.  Visit a local "sacred site."  For us, for example, this could be Mt. Shasta, the headwaters spring of the Sacramento River in Mt. Shasta City, the Sacramento River at Woodson Bridge Park, a long walk in the forest below nearby Mt. Lassen, sitting on the shore of Whiskeytown Lake, sitting in my backyard in the moonlight, or visiting a beautiful church or college or park that is nearby.  Watch a DVD on a spiritual subject, sacred place, or inspirational topic.  Learn more about your local environment. 

15.  Read solitary or group rites for Lughnasadh available in books and webpages (see above).  Create your own ritual for Lughnasadh.  Practice the ritual.  Conduct the ritual at a convenient time for you, or your family and/or friends, as close to the day of the autumnal equinox as possible.  Attend a public Mabon ritual of a local NeoPagan group. 

16.  A large fire is often lit in your safe outdoor fireplace as part of celebrating Lughnasadh.  Take special care because many areas are quite dry in early August.  Maybe use a few fireworks left over from the Fourth of July in America. 

17.  Thoroughly clean, dust, tidy up, refreshen, improve, and add appropriate seasonal decorations to your home altar.  This should normally be clean and tidy, however an extra cleaning before the Lughnasadh celebration is a way to express your reverence, create a visible reminder of your thoughts and devotional practices, and to offer hospitality to the nature spirits, ancestors, and Shining Ones. If you don't have a home altar, read some books and webpages about setting one up in your home or garden, and then establish one this holiday season. 


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Quotations, Information, Facts, Lore
Lammas, Lughnasadh, Summer Fest, First Harvest Celebration



"Lammas celebrates the first wheat or barley harvest f the year and the skills of those who tend them. Baking and sharing bread, feasting with neighbor, and honoring the still-powerful forces of the summer sun's light, and are key elements of this cooperative, community-based sabbat.   Corn and wheat dollies made from the last sheaves and stalks of harvested grain are kept through winter to be planted with the first seeds of spring. These organic Goddess figures powerfully affirm the reverence for the Earth's cycles of birth, death, and renewal. The celebrations, which feature a break from toil, contests of skill, laughter feasting, and dancing, are tempered by the knowledge that most crops are still growing in the fields with no guarantee of adequate abundance for the long winter.   Lughnasadh's energy of cautious optimism and feeling of well-being bring out the best in all people. The sabbat mingles the expansion of vibrant summer energy with the gathering energy of the upcoming season. The result is a unique time for solidly expanding toward focused goals, such as perfecting and challenging your skills."
-   Damias Vine Yahoo Group, 7/29/07 



"Lug or Lugh (modern Irish Lú) is an Irish deity represented in mythological texts as a hero and High King of the distant past. He is known by the epithets Lámhfhada (meaning "long arm" or "long hand", or "left hand"), for his skill with a spear or sling, Ildánach ("skilled in many arts"), Samhildánach ("Equally skilled in many arts"), Lonnbeimnech ("fierce striker" or perhaps "sword-shouter") and Macnia ("boy hero"), and by the matronymic mac Ethlenn or mac Ethnenn ("son of Ethliu or Ethniu"). He is a reflex of the pan-Celtic god Lugus, and his Welsh counterpart is Lleu Llaw Gyffes, "The Bright One with the Strong Hand".   As a young man Lugh travels to Tara to join the court of king Nuada of the Tuatha Dé Danann. The doorkeeper will not let him in unless he has a skill with which to serve the king. He offers his services as a wright, a smith, a champion, a swordsman, a harpist, a hero, a poet and historian, a sorcerer, and a craftsman, but each time is rejected as the Tuatha Dé Danann already have someone with that skill. But when Lugh asks if they have anyone with all those skills simultaneously, the doorkeeper has to admit defeat, and Lugh joins the court and is appointed Chief Ollam of Ireland. He wins a flagstone-throwing contest against Ogma, the champion, and entertains the court with his harp. The Tuatha Dé are at that time oppressed by the Fomorians, and Lugh is amazed how meekly they accept this. Nuada wonders if this young man could lead them to freedom. Lugh is given command over the Tuatha Dé, and he begins making preparations for war.  Lugh’s sling rod was the rainbow and the Milky Way which was called "Lugh's Chain". He also had a magic spear (named Areadbhar), which, unlike the rod-sling, he had no need to wield since it was alive and thirsted so for blood that only by steeping its head in a sleeping-draught of pounded fresh poppy seeds could it be kept at rest. When battle was near, it was drawn out; then it roared and struggled against its thongs, fire flashed from it, and it tore through the ranks of the enemy once slipped from the leash, never tired of slaying.  Lugh is also assisted by a magic hound." 
-   Lugh - Wikipedia 



"The god Lugh was worshipped in Ireland as a deity of the sun. This connection with the sun may explain his name (it means "shining one"), and it also may account for the attributes that he displayed: he was handsome, perpetually youthful, and had a tremendous energy and vitality. This energy manifests itself especially in the number of skills he had, according to legend, mastered. In fact, there was a tale that related Lugh's myriad abilities at arts and crafts. As told in the Battle of Magh Tuiredh, the god travelled to Tara, and arrived during a tremendous feast for the royal court. Lugh was greeted at the door by the keeper of the gate, and was immediately asked what talent he had - for it was a tradition there that only those who had a special or unique ability could enter the palace. The god offered his reply: "I am a wright". In response, the gate keeper said: "We already have a wright. Your services are not needed here". Still, Lugh, not to be so easily dismissed, continued: "I am a smith". Again, the guard retorted that the court had a smith that was quite adequate; but the god was not to be dissuaded. In short order, he noted that he was also a champion, a harper, a hero, a poet, an historian, a sorcerer, and a craftsman. To this list, the gate keeper merely nodded his head, and stated matter of factly that all of these various trades were represented in the court by other members of the Tuatha de Danaan. "Ah, but you do have an individual who possesses all of these skills simultaneously?", was Lugh's clever and inspired reply. The guard was forced to admit his defeat, and so Lugh was allowed to enter and join the festivities. According to Celtic mythology, Lugh was the son of Cian and Ethlinn. After the god Nuada was killed in the Second Battle of Magh Tuiredh, Lugh became the leader of the Tuatha De Danaan (the term for the gods and goddesses who descended from the goddess Danu)."
Lugh Mythography   



"All paganism is at bottom a worship of nature in some form or other, and in all pagan religions the deepest and most awe-inspiring attribute of nature was its power of re-production. The mystery of birth and becoming was the deepest mystery of nature; it lay at the root of all thoughtful paganism, and appeared in various forms, some of a more innocent, others of a most debasing type. To ancient pagan thinkers, as well as to modern men of science, the key to the hidden secret of the origin and preservation of the universe lay in the mystery of sex. Two energies or agents, one an active and generative, other a feminine, passive, or susceptible one, were everywhere thought to combine for creative purposes; and heaven and earth sun and moon, day and night, were believed to co-operate to the production of being. Upon some such basis as this rested almost all the polytheistic worship of the old civilization; and to it may be traced back, by stage, the separation of divinity into male and female gods; the deification of distinct powers of nature, and the idealization of man's own faculties, desires, and lusts; where every power of his understanding was embodied as an object of adoration, and every impulse of his will became an incarnation of deity."
-   A.T. Jones, Ancient Sun Worship and Its Impact on Christianity




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Poems, Prayers, Rites, Liturgy, Invocations
Lammas, Lughnasadh, Summer Fest, First Harvest Celebration


“The grain to harvest’s cutting falls
to make the bread for banquet halls.
We’ll save some seeds where life’s waiting,
and plant a new field come next Spring.
We shared the work we needed to do,
and now we’ll share the eating too!
Thank you, fruit, and thank you bread,
for making sure that we are fed.”
-  Asleen O’Gaea, Celebrating the Seasons of Life: Beltane to Mabon, p.  


“Under the summer sun,
thirty birds feeding
on figs.

Young tree branches
sagging so low -
ripe peaches.

Still in the shade,
on wet soil,
a black dragonfly.

An old mind
surprised by seeing
a purple fairy at sunset,
dancing to the crickets’ tunes,
leaping as guinea hens screech,
wary of the bats,
hovering to say,
“Lugh’s Day, Lugh’s Day.”

Crackling fires
under the full moon.

Peace in the Valley.”
- Mike Garofalo, Lugh’s Fairy  


"Now is the time of the First Harvest,
when bounties of nature give of themselves
so that we may survive.
O God of the ripening fields, Lord of the Grain,
grant me the understanding of sacrifice as you
prepare to deliver yourself under the sickle of the
goddess and journey to the lands of eternal summer.
O Goddess of the Dark Moon,
teach me the secrets of rebirth
as the Sun loses its strength and the nights grow cold.

I partake of the first harvest, mixing its energies
with mine that I may continue my quest for the starry
wisdom of perfection.
O Lady of the Moon and Lord of the Sun,
gracious ones before Whom the stars halt their courses,
I offer my thanks for the continuing fertility of the Earth.
May the nodding grain loose its seeds to be buried in
the Mothers breast, ensuring rebirth in the warmth
of the coming Spring."
-   Scott Cunningham, Lammas Ritual



“The Wheel rolls more, and Autumn returns.
Cooler the rain; the Sun lower burns.
The coloring leaves presage the Year:
All things move into harvest’s sphere.
I vow to savor fruits first picked;
nor into grief shall I be tricked.
I vow to offer what once I spurned,
and face the Turning reassured.
- Asleen O’Gaea, Celebrating the Seasons of Life: Beltane to Mabon, p. 



"Corn rigs an' barley rigs,
An' corn rigs are bonie,
I'll ne'er forget that happy night,
Amang the rigs wi' Annie."
-   Robert Burns, It Was Upon a Lammas Night 



“I come to this space in celebration
Within the Sacred Garden of the Gods.
The Sun God;
He gives forth light and the energy of life to all.
Through the Goddess and from the Goddess
All things grow and mature.
It is She who is the bearer of life and rebirth of the Harvest to
The land is full and must be tended.
Let me now share Her bounty.”
-   Solitary Lammas Ritual



"The Wheel of the Year has turned once more,
and the harvest will soon be upon us.
We have food on our tables, and
the soil is fertile.
Nature's bounty, the gift of the earth,
gives us reasons to be thankful.
Mother of the Harvest, with your sickle and basket,
bless me with abundance and plenty. 

The power of the Harvest is within me.
As the seed falls to the earth and is reborn each year,
I too grow as the seasons change.
As the grain takes root in the fertile soil,
I too will find my roots and develop.
As the smallest seed blooms into a mighty stalk,
I too will bloom where I landed.
As the wheat is harvested and saved for winter,
I too will set aside that which I can use later.

As the grain dies, it transforms to bread,
and brings us life through the winter.
We bless this bread, and it blesses us in return,
and we are thankful for the gift of the harvest."
-   Patti Wigington, Hold a Lammas Harvest Festival 



"There was three men came out of the west,
Their fortunes for to try,
And these three men made a solemn vow,
John Barleycorn should die.
They ploughed, they sowed, they harrowed him in,
Throwed clods upon his head,
And these three man made a solemn vow,
John Barleycorn was dead.

Then they let him lie for a very long time
Till the rain from heaven did fall,
Then little Sir John sprung up his head,
And soon amazed them all.
They let him stand till midsummer
Till he looked both pale and wan,
And little Sir John he growed a long beard
And so became a man."
-   John Barleycorn, Version by John Renfro Davis 



"Come ye spirits of North, powers of Earth, bring the beauty of ripe, golden fields. Be with me this night.
Come ye spirits of East, powers of Air, bring the cool morning breeze. Be with me this night.
Come ye spirits of South, powers of Fire, bring the hot, sultry summer afternoons. Be with me this night.
Come ye spirits of West, powers of Water, bring the warm rains that nourish the fields. Be with me this night.
Lord Lugh, Lord of the Harvest, the bounty of your seed ripens in the fields and orchards. Be with me this night.
Lady Gaia, Mother of All, your great swollen belly provides abundance. Nourish me, protect me. Be with me this night."
-   Lughnasadh Ritual, Llewellyn Encyclopedia



"O Lugh of the Long Arm:
You arch over earth
To kiss the corn,
To call it forth,
To see it born.  
Your hillslopes flaunt,
breathe golden bees.
From parched fields
Scant dewfall flees.  
Your chest is opened
Your heart exposed
Your blood like bronze
And amber flows.  
Sun sears your flesh
Asprawl in thistles
Through your wound
Your life’s breath whistles.  
You laid you down
In fragrant thyme,
To bleed the sun’s
Entranced decline. 
You wrestled harvest,
Corn to capture –
Now we see at sunfall
Your face of rapture."
-   Lughnasadh Ritual by Llwyn y Ser, The Grove of the Stars 



"Now upon my altar,
Gifts I offer the Two that are One.
As each day passes, shorter than the last,
May I be reminded of the seasons that have passed.
The marriage and the seeding of the Goddess in May;
Her womb swollen with life anew at Summer Solstice Day;
All this time the Father Sun has shone with so much pride.

"Rising early, setting late;
Now that He has supplied the warmth and light
For the good of the Earth
He knows that His death is drawing near.
But this secret He understands,
That with the turning of the wheel,
His rebirth has been planned."
-   Lammas Ritual by Asiya



"Great Lugh!
Master of artisans,
leader of craftsmen,
patron of smiths,
I call upon you and honor you this day.
You of the many skills and talents,
I ask you to shine upon me and
bless me with your gifts.
Give me strength in skill,
make my hands and mind deft,
shine light upon my talents.
O mighty Lugh,
I thank you for your blessings."



"Blessed be the Earth for giving birth to this food
Blessed be the Sun for nourishing it
Blessed be the Wind for carrying its seed
Blessed be the Rain for quenching its thirst.
Blessed be the hands that helped to grow this food>"
Lughnasadh Harvest



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Lughnasadh - Table of Associations and Correspondences


Time of Day

Mid-Afternoon, Noon to 5 pm

Time of Life

40-60's, Middle Age, Height of Powers, Fatherhood


Bread, Corn, Wheat, Fruits, Corn Dolly, Green Man


Plums, Peaches, Grapes, Wheat, Lamb, Berries, Barley Cakes, Breads


Heather, Acacia, Hollyhock, Aloes, Sunflowers, Frankincense, Sandalwood, Rose


Baskets, Lugh's Spear (Areadbhar), Sickles, Scythes


Ceres, Demeter, Corn Mother, Pomona, Mother Earth


Lugh, Mercury, Hermes, Adonis
John Barleycorn, Green Man
Lughnasadh is more of a Men's Holiday


Harvest, Transformation, Fruitfulness, Change Abundance, Completion, Prosperity, Robustness, Achievement, Letting Go, Reaping, Sacrifice, Purification, Contentment

Bread of Life, Table of Plenty, Ever Flowing Cup, Chalice of Plenty

Farming Activities

Harvesting and preserving wheat, corn, vegetables


Crow, Salmon

Tarot, Divination Wheel of Fortune, Justice


Golden Yellow, Light Brown, Purple, Orange, Red-Brown, Brown-Grey

Activities, Celebrations Dancing, Singing, Playing Music
Poetry Reading, Bardic Competitions
Games, Competitions, Men's Sports 
Drinking beer, whiskey, mead, iced tea 

Sacred Circle (Valley Spirit)

South-West, Violet



Lughnasadh - Druid, Neo-Pagan
Lammas - Wiccan
Mea’n Fo’mhair (Greenman) - Druid, Welsh 


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Mike Garofalo's Notes

My notes, observations, listing of local activities, and studies on the Holy Day and the season: 



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Seasonal and Gardening
Poems, Quotes, Sayings, Ideas, Chores
Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo





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Green Way Journal by Michael P. Garofalo























Michael P. Garofalo's E-mail


Valley Spirit Center
Meditation Research and Education
Red Bluff, California

Red Bluff, Tehama County, North Sacramento Valley, Northern California, U.S.A.
Cities in the area: Oroville, Paradise, Durham, Chico, Hamilton City, Orland, Corning,
Rancho Tehama, Los Molinos, Tehama, Gerber, Manton, Cottonwood, 
Anderson, Shasta Lake, Palo Cedro, and Redding, CA


© 2007 - 2010, Green Way Research, Red Bluff, California
Michael P. Garofalo, All Rights Reserved



The Spirit of Gardening

Cloud Hands: Chinese Mind-Body Movement Arts 

Months: Quotations, Poetry, Lore, Garden Chores

One Old Druid's Final Journey: Notebooks of the Librarian of Gushen Grove 


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