Tai Chi Fan
Taijiquan Fan, Taiji Kung Fu Fan, Competition Fan, Wushu Fan, Tai Chi Fan Dance, Martial Fan Forms

Bibliography      Links      Quotations      Professor Li Deyin's Fan Forms     Cloud Hands Blog  

Research by
Michael P. Garofalo






Bibliography, Links, Resources
Taijiquan, Kung Fu, Wushu Fan Dances; Tai Chi Fan Dancing, Martial Arts Fan Forms
Fan (Shan
)  Fan Dance (Shan Wu, 扇 舞)


All About Hand Fans with Cynthia Fendel   Collecting, preserving, history, types, museums. 

All Hand Fans   History, manufacture, conservation, nomenclature, styles, and curiosities. 

Antique Fan Collectors Association

Art of the Purple Butterfly: The Taiji Fan.  INBI Taoist Academy. 

Cascade Bagua Fan.  Instructional DVD, 121 minutes, by Shifu Jiang Jian-ye.  Created by Zhao Chang-Jun.  "This video combines the style of Dong Hai-Chuan, founder of Bagua Zhang and his well-known students Yin Fu and Cheng Ting-Hua. The form was created at Chinese movie star Zhao Chang-Jun’s martial arts school in Shanxi Province. There is a demonstration of the form followed by teaching of individual movements. The postures are repeated several times from three different directions. There are periodic reviews of segments and a demonstration at the end in slow motion and regular speed."  This description of the teaching style of Shifu Jiang Jian-ye is typical of all his instructional DVDs.  

Chen Jaigou Taiji Fan  UTube Video, 2:06.  Professor Kathy Zenju Chyan practicing fan form.  

Chen Style Fan.  Demonstrated by Master Master Ma Chunxi.  UTube Video, 3:35 min.  Lady in green outfit against a background of hills and buildings; soft music.  A lovely form. 

Chen Style Taiji Fan.  Demonstration and lecture by Master Zhu Tiancai.  Instructional DVD in Chinese, with English and Chinese subtitles.  "Chen-Style Taiji Fan is based on the Chen-Style Taijiquan, led by Chen-Style Taiji broadsword and sword techniques, and accompanied by the Chen-Style Taiji fan routines adopted by the fan function. The whole routine consists of four sections, harmoniously forceful and soft, alternatively fast and slow, particularly simple and elegant. Its practice effect is the same to Chen-Style fist and instruments though they are different in approach. The fan is portable for practice everywhere, a best choice of the elderly practice.

Chinese Dancing

Chinese Fan Dance.  UTube Video, 4:38 minutes.  Traditional non-martial Chinese fan dance. 

Chinese Fan Dances 

Chinese Fan History

"Chinese Fans: Artistry and Aesthetics (Arts of China, #2)."  By Gonglin Qian.  Long River Press, 2004.  ISBN 1592650201.

Chinese Kung Fu Double Fan.  Instructional DVD, 115 minutes, by Shifu Jiang Jian-ye.  "This new Kung Fu Double Fan form was created by Jiang from basic techniques of Wushu, Bagua and Xingyi.  There are 24 forms demonstrated, followed by step-by-step teaching with multiple repetitions and views plus reviews of segments." 

Chinese Kung Fu Single Fan.  Created by Jiang Jian-ye.  Instructional DVD, by Shifu Jiang Jian-ye, 120 minutes.  "This lively, spirited gongfu fan set was created by Jiang from Wushu, Bagua and Xingyi forms."


Cloud Hands Blog


Cloud Hands Blog - Fans (Shan)

Cloud Hands Website 

Le Curieux, Serge Davoudian, Eventails

Demonstration/Workshop of 7 Traditional Fans.  90 minute DVD by Shifu Jiang Jian-ye.  "Presented in 2 parts. First there are demonstrations of 2 Tai Chi Fan sets, 2 Mu Lan Fans and one each of Spring Autumn Fan, Mu Lan and Xingyi. Then a workshop explains techniques of different fan styles and how they differ. The video is useful for review and comparison of the styles." 

Dragon Tai Chi Fan Routine.  UTube Video, 2:02.  Clips from instructional video by Master Bow Sim Mark. 

Fan Association of North America 

The Fan Circle International.   History, links, information. 

Fan Culture

Fan Dance - Wikipedia

Fan Forms Available from Wayfarer Publications 

Fans in the 16th and 17th Century in Europe

Fan Museum    Greenwich, London 

Fan Nomenclature

Fans From Superior Martial Arts

Fans - History (Wikipedia) 

"Fans of Imperial China."  By Neville John Irons.  Kaiserreich Kunst Ltd, 1982.  ISBN 090791800X.


Fans - Retailers, Vendors, Distributors, Sales

Chinese Calligraphy Fans

Fans from Amazon  

Hand Fans: Silk, Lace, Wood, and Paper Hand Fans

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fans 

Tai Chi Music 

Silk Fans

Superior Martial Arts Fans


Flowing Water Tai Chi Fan.  Instructional DVD, 120 minutes, by Shifu Jiang Jian-ye.  "He has created a 14-movement form that combines Tai Chi movements and special fan techniques that are intended for beginners and seniors. It designed to be simple and easy to learn and improve balance and joint flexibility." 

Flowing Water Tai Chi Double Fan
Instructional DVD, 113 minutes, by Jiang Jian-ye.  "The 12 forms were created by Jiang for beginners and seniors to improve balance, coordination and joint mobility."

Flying Rainbow and 42 Movement Single Fan.  Created by Ms. Jian Guiyan from Guangzhou (Canton).

Flying Rainbow fan routines "were developed by Master Helen Wu's mother, Professor Ju-Rong Wang, (the first woman professor of Chinese martial arts in China) in 1960.  There are seven serial fan routines, Tai-Chi Fan, Kung-Fu Fan & Ba-Gua Fan that all have the powerful martial aspect for both offence and defence. It can help anyone relieve tension, develop grace, strength and balance and appeal to children, men and women. They are a wonderful addition to the martial arts syllabus."

Flying Rainbow Fan Practice.  UTube Video, 4:41 min.  A man and woman practice the routine in Texas. 

Gaiam Tai Chi Fan Dance Kit.  Instructional DVD and fan.  "The fan is a natural extension of your energy and complements any beginning or established T'ai Chi practice.  DVD includes step-by-step instructions on fan form and posture.  Routine improves strength, balance and flexibility.  Instructor Daisy Lee Garripoli is one of the world's leading Tai Chi teachers, traveling internationally to teach the healing arts.  Includes steel T'ai Chi fan with painted cloth cove."

Green Paths in the Valley Blog  

Hand Fan Museum   Healdsburg, California. 

Hand Fans from Spain  

Heaven and Earth Tai Chi Fan.  UTube Video, 3:56 min.  Man performs alone in a park.  "Kung Taiji Fan is a newer form brought to Wudang by Master Zhong Xue Chao. This form comes from Kong Tong Mountain in Gan Su Provience."

Huawu Taiji Fan.  Video, 2:36 min.  A 30 movement fan form created by Professor Tseng Nai Liang. 

Japanese War Fan  "Fans are also used for offensive and defensive purposes in the Chinese and Korean martial arts. They are called "铁扇" (tiě shān, literally 'steel fan') in Chinese, and "부채" ("Buchae") in Korean."  

List of Movements of the Taiji Kung Fu Fan Form by Professor Li Deyin.  List of the 52 movement names.  Prepared by Mike Garofalo.  The names of the movements are given in English, Romanized Chinese (Pinyin and/or Wade Giles), Chinese characters, French, German, and Spanish.  Includes spatial directions.  16 pages, 350Kb+, Read Only .pdf file. 

List of Movements of the Taiji Kung Fu Fan Form by Professor Li Deyin.  List of the 52 movement names in English.  Prepared by Mike Garofalo. 

Luk, Karen   Artist, Paper Dragons Press, San Francisco


                                     Karen Luk, War Fan 


Mu Lan Double Fan.  Instructional DVD, 112 minutes, by Lu Yuzhi.  "This 80-movement form is very popular in China. It combines movements from Chinese dance and T'ai Chi Ch'uan. She teaches the form movement by movement with 4-5 views from front and back and side, as applicable. It opens with a demonstration and then concludes with a demonstration of the whole form, showing front and back. There are intermediate demonstrations of segments."

Mu Lan Single Fan.  Instructional DVD, 120 minutes, by Lu Yuzhi.  "Named after an historic Chinese heroine, this 66-movement form contains elements of T'ai Chi and dance. It is demonstrated and taught by Lu Yuzhi, a graduate of Qufu University, who has studied and taught widely in China. She demonstrates the fan form and then teaches posture by posture with multiple repetitions, some from the front, and others from the back. Instruction is in English with a voice-over. There are periodic reviews of groups of movement, front and back. At the conclusion, there is a demonstration front and back.  "Mu Lan is a famous heroine of the North-South Dynasty.  Disguised as a man, she fought in her father's place. This routine is choreographed in her honor. It blends dance with tai chi. Very popular in China, it is now spreading through the rest of the world." - Superior Martial Arts Fan DVDs  

"Ogi: A History of the Japanese Fan."  By Julia Hutt and Helene Alexander.  Art Media Resources; Bilingual edition, 1992.  ISBN 1872357083. 

The Fan: Outlines of Chinese Symbolism and Art Motives.  By Charles Alfred Speed Williams. 

Palace de l'Eventail 

Parts of a Fan - Fan Nomenclature

Mu Lan Single Fan.  Demonstration by Master Ana Wu.  UTube Video, 5:11 minutes. 

Peacocks in Heraldry and Lore  "In China, the bird was a symbol of the Ming Dynasty. The Chinese equated the peacock with divinity, rank, power, and beauty."

Praying Mantis Taiji Fan.  UTube Video, 3:21 min.  Three women in beautiful outfits performing the routine in a park. 

Praying Mantis Taiji Killing Fan Play.  Chinese/English book by Tse Wing Ming.  83 pages.  "This little book is EN FACE - both Chinese and English versions are shown face-to-face. Not only a nice volume with clear illustrations but a good piece for those wanting to improve their martial translation skills. An intermediate set in the Praying Mantis system. Mantis hooking actions and fist actions are coordinated with a lot of hooking steps (Seven Star stances). A relatively short set with 53 postures.In case you are unfamiliar with Mantis it specializes in "point striking" that is, acupuncture points used in martial application. The design of the fan allows this along with its "fanned out" form to confuse the eye. This is not a fancy or balletic version but an authentic mantis form with conservatives moves mostly relating to self defense.Tse Wing Ming claims lineage from Chui Chuk Kai."

Spring and Autumn Tai Chi Fan.  Instructional DVD, 124 minutes, taught by Shifu Lu Yuzhi.  "This fan set originated during the famous Spring and Autumn period in Chinese history. The fans are used as a weapon and as a way hide and obscure one’s movements from the opponent. It is practiced today for its elegance and health benefits. Each of the 40 movements is taught three or more times, depending on the difficulty." 

Tai Chi Double Fan.  Instructional DVD, 120 minutes, by Jiang Jian-ye.  "Jiang created this 25-posture double fan form with movements from each of the five main styles of T’ai Chi Ch’uan—Chen, Yang, Wu, Wu/Hao, and Sun." 

Tai Chi Double Fan.  Instructional DVD, 51 minutes, by Helen Wu. "This is a dynamic double fan set that includes many martial art movements. The entire routine is demonstrated from the front. Then it is shown in four sections with an initial front view of each section followed by a back view repeated four times for each of the four sections. Finally the entire routine is demonstrated with a back view."

Tai Chi Dragon Fan  74 page book with 150 photographs.   "Bow Sim Mark is a treasure of the WuShu world. A fine martial artist and an accomplished performer she has dedicated much of her life to spreading the art. In this oversized text she shows a set with the folding fan. Unlike many such sets, hers incorporates strong stances and martially logical motions. One of the better. This entire text is en face (Chinese/English)."  Vendor 2

Tai Chi Fan: Bibliography, Links, Resources, Quotations, List of Movements.  By Mike Garofalo. 

Tai Chi Fan Form.  Created by Professor Yang Li.  18 movements form.  Instructional DVD.  "The 18 Form Tai Chi Fan has inherited traditional folk fan skills and possesses the basic styles and characteristics of the Yang Style Tai Chi. Its movements are smooth and graceful, slow and ever paced. This DVD is good for Tai Chi Fan's exercisers. It contains detailed explanation to its basic and separated movements with solo displays and performances given by three persons. The tuition is very clear. This disk is dubbed with four languages including Chinese, English, French and Spanish." - Amazon

Tai Chi Fan Music

Tai Chi Finder Fan   "We have the more unusual metal fans, bamboo fans as well as the very popular plastic fans in several different colours and designs -even a golden calligraphy fan.
In terms of DVDs we have ones by Mark Peters, Yang Li, and Professor Li Deyin, also the Wudang form."  From David at Tai Chi Finder Limited, UK. 






Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan Forms I and II
Two Taiji Kung Fu Fan Dance Forms Created by Grandmaster and Professor Li Deyin
Form I: 52 Movements 
Form II: 56 Movements, Beautiful Sunset, Xi Yang Mei

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan Dance, Form I

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1.  Instructional DVD by Professor Li Deyin (1938-).  Narration by Professor Li Deyin in Chinese with some subtitles in Chinese.  There is an English language translation in a voice over narration.  The instructions and comments by Professor Li Deyin, in six lessons, are quite detailed.  Produced by the Deyin Taijiquan Institute (GB).  An instructional DVD running approximately 2 hours.  "A fan routine, created by Professor Li, which combines the gracefulness, centrality and continuity of Taiji with the power, speed and fierceness of Wushu. It is designed as an addition to the exercises for health, and has received massive interest and support throughout the world. In this DVD, Grandmaster and Professor Li provides in-depth teaching with Mrs. Fang Mishou performing a detail demonstration."  Vendor 1.   Cost: $36.00 US.  Demonstration by Fay Li Yip, daughter of Li Deyin.  VSTLC.  "In depth teaching and clear demonstration.  A unique learning tool for home studies by beginners and advanced students.  This routine is choreographed by Professor Li, one of the martial arts treasures in China.  In this video, we have invited Professor Li to conduct in depth teaching of the routine, and Mrs. Fang Fishou, top instructor in Beijing, to perform a full demonstration."  

"The creation of the Taiji Kungfu Fan Form was completed in January 2001 in Beijing.  The first public demonstration of this new creation took place on February 18, 2001, by 2008 senior Taiji enthusiasts at Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The rest is history…"  - Faye Li Yip


Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1.  Routine 1, created by Grandmaster Li Deyin (1938-).  Instructional DVD, 65 minutes, by Master Jesse Tsao.  Tai Chi Healthways, San Diego, California. "The most popular Tai Chi Fan form ever practiced in China.  The routine was created by Grandmaster Li Deyin, Jesse Tsao's teacher since 1978.  There are 52 movements in the whole routine based on the characteristic Tai Chi posture with the fan's artistic and martial functions.  Master Tsao presents demonstrations at the beginning and end.  He teaches step-by-step in slow motion, in English.  There are plenty of repetitions of movements in both front and back view.  It is a good reference for home study, or a resource for instructor's teaching preparation."  Cost: $35.00 US.  Demonstration.  VSTLC. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1, List of Movements.  List of the 52 movement names.  Prepared by Mike Garofalo.  The names of the movements are given in English, Romanized Chinese (Pinyin and/or Wade Giles), Chinese characters, French, German, and Spanish.  Includes spatial directions.  This document is being revised in the Spring of 2009.  Your suggestions and corrections are welcome.  16 pages, 350Kb+, Read Only .pdf file. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1, List of Movements.  List of the 52 movement names in English.  Prepared by Mike Garofalo. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1, Section I, List of Movements.  List of Movements 1-26.  Prepared by Mike Garofalo. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1, Class Handout.   Handout for students studying this fan form with Mike Garofalo, Valley Spirit Taijiquan, starting in May 2009. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1, List of Movements.  List of the 52 movements, in Chinese characters, from the Huaxia Taiji Club.  The form is divided into six sections. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1, List of Movements.  List of the 52 movements in Spanish and Romanized Chinese (Pinyin).  "Taiji Gong Fu Shan. Forma de 52 movimientos.   By Teresa Menchén y Eduardo Escudero.  Esta es la forma de abanico más popular en China. Ha sido creada por el gran maestro Li Deyin. Contiene movimientos característicos de Taiji, de Wushu, así como movimientos artísticos de la ópera de Pekín."

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1, Notes, Comments, Research.  Prepared by Mike Garofalo.

Tai Chi Kung Fun Fan, Form 1, Video.  UTube Video, 4:02 min.  Lady in white on a stage in Japan.  My favorite!  "First Form of the Xiyangmei Taiji Kungfu Shan (Taiji Shan). Recorded in Tokyo, Japan when the group headed by Li Deyin went to give an exhibition in 2006."  

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1, Video.  UTube Video, 3:59 min.  Three performers in white outfits. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1, Video.  UTube Video, 3:59 min.  Demonstrated by Patty Lee.  Lady in a yellow outfit in a field with a backdrop of mountains. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1, Video.  UTube Video, 4:02 min.  Lady in black practicing in a dance studio. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1, Video.  UTube Video, 3:42.  A group of Master Faye Li Yip's students performing outdoors.  

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1, Video.  UTube Video, 3:53 min.  A group in black outfits performs outdoors in Madrid, Spain.  Some members need more group practice. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1, Video.  UTube Video, 5:57 min.  Two ladies in red outfits perform outdoors in Rotterdam, The Netherlands.   

Taiji Fan, Video.  UTube Video, 3:34 min.  Mike Martello's performance. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1中國太極功夫扇  

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1.  UTube Video Subject Search. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1, Created by Professor Le Deyin (1938-)   Blog Post.

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1   Fans for this style of Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan practice for purchase in red, black and blue colors. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 1.   Music on CD.  "A beautiful piece of music with dynamic lyrics and heartfelt rhythms.  It is perfect for practicing the first routine of the Taiji Kung Fu Fans. The music runs three times with just music
and three times with names of postures. This CD is Excellent for pace control of routine in practice."  VSTLC. 

Tai Chi Kung Fun Fan, Form 1, Background Music.  Frequently, performances of this fan form are done while a particular song is playing.  Chinese name of this song is 中國功夫 (Zhongguo Kungfu).  The song is a tribute called "Chinese Kung Fu."  I don't know the group that performs this popular song.  For a good recording of the song, check out the podcast provided at "Ellen's Podcast," and titled "Chinese Kung Fu, A Song My Son Loves."  On Ellen's Blog, titled "Ellen's Podcast, Living Chinese," on 6/19/2007, she provided the Chinese characters for this song, and a rough translation into English.     

The following persons provided me with useful information and references about the Taiji Kung Fu Fan Form 1:  Elvira Geselbracht from Osnabrück, Germany; Faye (Li) Yip, England; Professor Hermann Bohn, Taiwan. 

The Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan Form was created first, then the Beautiful Sunset, Xi Yang Mei, Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan Form was created by Professor Li Deyin.  Because of the worldwide popularity of the two forms, and our natural attraction to a more poetic name like "Beautiful Sunset Fan," many people now call the 1st form the "Beautiful Sunset Fan Form 1 (One, I, First, Routine I, From 1, Set 1)" and the 2nd form the "Beautiful Sunset Fan Form 2." 


Beautiful Sunset, Xi Yang Mei, Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan Dance, Form II
Created by Professor and Grandmaster Li Deyin. 
Form II: 56 Movements

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 2, "Beauty of the Sunset (Xi Yang Mei)."  Created by Grandmaster Li Deyin (1938) in Beijing.  Instructional DVD, 65 minutes, by Master Jesse Tsao.  Tai Chi Healthways, San Diego, California.  "This is a dynamic routine with various moves from Chen, Yang, Wu, and Sun Tai Chi and Chinese kung fu.  Master Tsao presents it here with his signature teaching style of posture-by-posture learning, in English, with front and back views.  It is a good reference for home study, or a resource for instructor's teaching preparation.  Suggest 30 class hours.  (Difficulty: Beginner to Advanced)" 

Xiyangmei Taiji Kung Fu Fan.  Instructional DVD by Professor Li Deyin.  Narration in English.  "This fan routine, created by professor Li, is based on the framework of the first Taji Kung Fu Fan.  By putting a series of more complicated but graceful taiji movements together with numerous powerful and dynamic movements from other martial arts styles, it provides an excellent opportunity for enthusiasts to achieve better physical fitness, greater flexibility and increase self confidence."

Xi Yang Mei Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan.  Instructional DVD by Grandmaster Li Deyin.  Published by the Beijing TV Art Center Publishing House.  Language: Mandarin Chinese, Chinese and English Subtitles.  ISBN: 7883068237 9787883068235.  "Xiyangmei Taiji Kung Fu Fan is another dynamic and very enjoyable fan form (after the Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan ) created by Professor Li Deyin and incorporating a few Kung Fu moves for extra interest. It seems to lend itself to being performed in groups but its more compact nature compared with other weapons forms makes it particularly suited to modern times. Many of the moves are familiar from the empty hand, sword form and especially the sabre or broadsword form but there is the extra factor of the snapping open and closed of the fan." 





    "Li De Yin, is the well known figure in China for his outstanding contribution in promoting Tai Chi. He is the director of the Physical Education Department of Beijing People's University and Vice Chairman of Beijing Wushu Association. He served as head coach for the thousands-people Tai Chi Parade of the opening ceremony of 11th Asian Game. He also served as Chief Umpire for the Tai Chi Chuan competition. He is nominated as the "Top 100 best martial artists in China Today" and one of the "National Ten Most Popular Wushu Masters".    

    Tai Chi Fan is a martial art form that creatively combined the essence of Tai Chi and grace of dancing. With little information available in the market, this video is a valuable source to explain and demonstrate the actions clearly. The Tai Chi Fan video gives complete illustration of a system of fencing and (with some fine tuning) attack.  

    The video is demonstrated by Martial Art Masters in China. You will learn that their first class technique and elegant moves will not only be a great learning tool, but also great just for viewing pleasure. The movements are shot through multiple angles with slow and easy to follow steps specifically designed for people learning through videos. Although unless otherwise specified, all martial art videos are in Chinese, you will find it easy to follow the steps and learn from the masters." 

Tai Chi Kung Fun Fan, Form 2, Beautiful Sunset, Background Music.  Frequently, performances of this fan form are done while a particular song is playing.  The song is a tribute called "Chinese Kung Fu."  I don't know the group that performs this popular song.  For a good recording of the song, check out the podcast provided at "Ellen's Podcast," and titled "Chinese Kung Fu, A Song My Son Loves."  On Ellen's Blog, titled "Ellen's Podcast, Living Chinese," on 6/19/2007, she provided the Chinese characters for this song, and a translation into English.   

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 2, Beautiful Sunset.  UTube Video, 3:01 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 2, Beautiful Sunset.  UTube Video, 3:55 min.  Three performers in front of dramatic building. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 2, Beautiful Sunset.  UTube Video, 4:19 min.  Back view of lady in red. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu fan, Form 2, Beautiful Sunset.  UTube Video, 3:47 min.  A group of women in lovely Kung Fun uniforms perform the routine at the Huntington Library in Pasadena, California. 

Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan, Form 2, Beautiful Sunset.  UTube Video, 3:51 min.   "Xiyangmei Taiji Kungfu Fan is the second routine created by Professor Li Deyin as a progression from the first routine. Demonstrated outdoors in a park by Master Faye (Li) Yip, the first person to learn this routine." 


"Li Deyin was born in 1938 in Hebei province. He was raised in the culture of wushu and began training when he was eight. His grandfather Li Yulin formally acknowledged Sun Lutang, Hao Enguang, Li Cunyi and Li Jinglin as masters. His father was a doctor who treated his patients with qigong, taiji and massage. His uncle Li Tianji created the first standardized simplified 24-form taijiquan and 32-form taiji sword. Due to his uncle Li Tianji's excellent achievement and contribution, China awarded him the title "Father of Contemporary Taijiquan." Li Deyin went to school in the morning and trained in the evening. He was trained all year round, despite a bitter cold winter or a scorching hot summer. It was in this intensive training under his patriarchal masters that Li Deyin was trained for twelve consecutive years.  Right after Li Deyin graduated from Beijing People's University in 1957, the University hired him to be a taiji master due to his excellent achievement in internal martial arts. Professor Li Deyin has trained the world's top professionals, such as Gao Jiamin, Chen Sitan and Huo Dongli, who have won gold in All-China National Tournaments and Asian Games. Professor Li has been awarded with numerous honorary titles, such as one of China's "100 Best Wushu Masters " (Wulin Bai Jie), "Best Judge." Many professional taiji people from China and the outside world, even grand champions, have come to Beijing to be trained by him."
-  Siu-Fong Evans, Kung Fu Magazine

Professor Li Deyin has trained thousands of Taijiquan and Wushu teachers, including: Gao Jiamin (Portland), Fay Li Yip (his daughter), Jesse Tsao (San Diego), Siu-Fong Evans (San Diego). 

Grandmaster Li Deyin (1938-) Biographical Information Sources:  One, Two, Interview 2, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight, Nine, Google. 

Taiji Kung Fun Fan Instructor Course by Master Faye (Li) Yip 







Tai Chi Plum Blossom Fan.  Instructional DVD, 55 minutes, by Doc-Fai Wong.  "This form created by Doc-Fai Wong has 46 movements based on Yang style T'ai Chi Ch'uan. There is a demonstration front and back followed by step-by-step instruction. Applications for the movements are given. There are multiple repetitions and multiple camera angles." 

Tai Chi Single Fan: For Health and Martial Arts.  By Helen Wu, and Wen-Ching Wu.  160 pages.   Way of the Dragon, 1st edition, 2000.  ISBN: 1889659169.  "The Tai Chi Single Fan routine incorporates movements from the Chen, Yang, Wu, W and Sun styles of Tai Chi Chuan. It was created by Professor Wang, Ju-Rong; the first woman professor of Chinese martial arts. This routine combines the characteristics of Tai Chi Chuan with the artistic and martial functions of the fan. Practicing the Tai Chi Single Fan can help develop your flexibility, strength, balance, health, and further your Tai Chi training. Whether you practice Tai Chi as a martial art or for health and enjoyment, you will find Tai Chi Single Fan a wonderful addition to your overall Tai Chi regimen." 

Tai Chi Single Fane.  By Helen Wu.  Instructional VHS.  50 minutes. 

Taijiquan.  By Li Deyin.  London, Singing Dragon, 2004, 2008.  In English.  402 pages.  ISBN: 9781848190047, 1848190042.  Includes a complimentary DVD.  Includes descriptions, with photographs, of the 81 Yang Taijiquan form, Simplified 24 Taijiquan, Competition 42 Taijiquan, Competition 42 Taiji Sword, and the 32 Taiji Sword. 

Tessen - A Japanese Samurai's Iron Fan   


Thirty Composite Fan Form (Tajishan 30 Composite)
Videos:  OneTwo 
Furio Petrossi said that Master Huang Shaosong taught this 30 movement fan form in Italy: 
1 opening form, 2 the phoenix look at the sun, 3 the white monkey offer fruit, 4 the Buddha's light lights the temple, 5 push the wave for growing the strength, 6 the crane land diagonally,
7 look at the tiger, 8 pick up the lotus' fruit under the wide leaf, 9 lead the little bird to the nest, 10 the dragon look backwards, 11 the crane land in the lawn, 12 the little eagle fly diagonally,
13 the lion king turn the head looking backwards, 14 the swallow skim the water, 15 the golden cock stay on one leg, 16 the swallow return to the nest after the great journey,
17 the peacock cartwheel with the tail, 18 push the boat towards the current, 19 the white crane open the wing, 20 rowing over the river, 21 the flower is opening towards the full moon,
22 the snake take-out the tongue, 23 the jade's girl throw the shuttle, 24 the beautiful girl is getting drunk, 25 the sage is fishing, 26 dusting in the wind, 27 the majestic eagle open the wing,
28 the golden phoenix turn over and look backwards, 29 the Buddha point the way, 30 closing form.

Valley Spirit Taijiquan, Red Bluff, California, Instructor: Mike Garofalo, M.S.

VSTLC = Valley Spirit Taijiquan Library Collection, Red Bluff, California 

Wayfarer Publications: Fan Forms 

Way of the Short Staff 

Wudang Fan.  "Qian Kung Taiji Fan is a newer form brought to Wudang by Master Zhong Xue Chao. This form comes from Kong Tong Mountain in Gan Su Provience. Though the fan is traditionally used for dancing and performing, Qian Kung Taiji Fan is a Kungfu fighting form, still beautiful yet fierce. Movements include cutting, thrusting, fanning & hitting."  List of movement names. 

Yang Style Tai Chi Fan Form and Applications
.   Instructional DVD by Diane Cannon.  "This DVD shows the T'ai-Chi Fan Form and its applications as they are taught at the Ming Tao T'ai-Chi Studio in Newark Delaware. The form is shown from both the front and back. Using the subtitles feature of your DVD player will allow you to see the names of the postures as they are performed. This DVD is being sold for Ming Tao by Ray Hayward of Shu Kuang Press and Publications."

Yang Style Tai Chi Fan - 36 Forms   Instructional Video VCD, 111 min. 



Five Fans
By Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1840)





Fan (Shan) History, Facts, Lore, Symbolism, Myths, Arcana



"Taiji fan is a unique bodybuilding martial art exercise blending the movements of Taiji boxing and other martial arts and dances. The movements are strong and flexible, aggressive and defensive, full of elegance and beauty and the impressive power of martial art. It is both ornamental and artistic.  There is a kind of Taiji fan featuring the pattern of Taiji fish. Hard paper, bamboo basketry, bamboo frame or plastic frame and cloth cover are adopted in making the fan. The plastic ones are becoming popular these years."
Cultural China 



"In archaic English the ‘fann’ meant a basket/shovel used for winnowing. The word was an adaptation of the Latin word ‘vannus’ that in turn is taken from ‘ventus’ meaning wind. The word ‘fan’ popped up for the first time in 1390 and the first hand-held-model is recorded in 1555.  The use of fans dates back to ancient times – to thousands of years ago. Fans had a dual purpose. It was a status symbol as well as an ornament. Fans have been made from myriad materials on which man found enough scope to decorate and express his art and craft.  ...  "
The Origin of the Fan



    "The Purple Butterfly Doctrine is the art of gathering external essence by using a fan.  It is also known as the "Art of Gathering the Five External Fillers."   According to the teachings of the Supreme Purity Sect, fans symbolize good luck and are also a symbol of resurrection.  Fans are also associated with the Zheng (Chen) Trigram.  They are tools capable of changing the adept's internal filling.  They help to develop the sensitivity of a human body.  The main distinguishing feature of fan practice is not certain forms per se, but instead a skill of being able to connect the work of a fan with your body work. 
    Initially, fans were one of the main tools of Taoist practice, and they were primarily used for alchemic work.  Fan practices date back into antiquity, and are associated with Zhongli Quan.  Zhongli Quan was born in Xianyang, which is located in Shaanxi Province.  According to one of the popular stories surrounding his life, Zhongli participated in some wars with Tibetan tribes.  During one of the battles he has an enlightenment moment and met one of the Immortals, Li Tieguai, who taught him the Taoist Way.  Zhongli did not win the battle and was forced to retreat and hide in the remote mountains, where he almost died.  When Zhongli's soul was just about to leave his body, he had a vision.  In his vision, he was visited by the Green Sovereign, Cang Di, Leader of the Orient.  Cang Di used his fan to bring Zhongli back to life.  Cang Di realized that Zhongli had immense inner potential so he taught him how to gather the essence of space.  After this, Zhongli began to study alchemy and mastered the art of turning copper and tin into gold and silver.  A fan was Zhongli's main tool. 
    Later, some Taiji masters included fans in their practice and teaching.  Currently, fan practice is becoming more popular in different Taijiquan styles."
Art of the Purple Butterfly: The Taiji Fan.  INBI Taoist Academy. 



"Zhongli Quan (Chinese: 鐘離權 or 鐘离權; Pinyin: Zhōnglí Quán; Wade-Giles: Chung-li Ch'üan) is one of the most ancient of the Eight Immortals.  Some say that the oldest Immortal is Iron-crutch Li or Elder Zhang Guo, or Lü Dongbin, and is the leader of the group.  Zhongli Quan is also known as Zhongli of Han (Han Zhongli 漢鐘離) because he was said to have benn born during the Han Dynasty.  Zhongli Quan possesses a fan which has the magical ability of reviving the dead. 
Born in Yantai (燕台 Yŕntái), Zhongli Quan was once a general serving the Han Dynasty. According to legends, bright beams of light filled the labour room during his birth. After birth he did not stop crying until seven full days had passed.  In Daoism, he is known as "正陽祖師" (Zhčngyáng Zǔshī), literally the True-Yang First-Master. He is also called "Master of the Cloud-Chamber" (雲房先生 Yún Fáng Xiān Shēng) in accounts describing his encounter with Lü Dongbin before achieving immortality. He has a rare two-character Chinese surname, Zhongli (鐘離)."
Zhongli Quan - Wikipedia




                   Han Zhongli Quan holding his Magical Celestial Fan



"The third of the Eight Immortals, Han Zhong Li [Han Chung Li] had great strength, and was physically the strongest of the Eight Drunken Immortals.  In his youth, Han had been a drunkard who had always had an eye for trouble, picking brawls and causing mischief. One day, Li Tit Kwai warned him to straighten out his life. Han refused, and challenged Li to a brawl. Han was promptly defeated and forced to abide by Li's side and become his pupil. Although he tried to run away from Li on many instances, Li always got the better of him. Han eventually resigned to becoming a Taoist priest and after many years of meditation achieved immortality on the Mountain Hua. Han's signature characteristics are a fan and a huge wine cauldron, the latter of which he is often depicted with in pictures. The fan [Celestial Fan] gives him the power of resurrecting the dead."
Joss House: Taoist Temples in California



    "In China, screen fans were used throughout the country. The earliest known Chinese fans are a pair of woven bamboo side-mounted fans from the 2nd century BC. The Chinese character for "fan" (扇) is etymologically derived from a picture of feathers under a roof. The Chinese fixed fan, pien-mien, means 'to agitate the air'. 
    Fans were part of the social status for the Chinese people. A particular status and gender would accord a specific type of fan to an individual. During the Song Dynasty, famous artists would often be commissioned to paint picture on the surface of a fan.
    The folding fan was invented in Japan in the 8th century and taken to China in the 9th century. The Akomeogi (or Japanese folding fan; 衵扇; Hiōgi) originated in the 6th century. These were fans held by aristocrats of the Heian period when formally dressed. They were made by tying thin stripes of hinoki (or Japanese cypress) together with thread. The number of strips of wood differed according to the person's rank. They are used today by Shinto priests in formal costume and in the formal costume of the Japanese court (they can be seen used by the Emperor and Empress during coronation and marriage) and are brightly painted with long tassels. The Chinese dancing fan was developed in the 7th century. The Chinese form of the hand fan was a row of feathers mounted in the end of a handle.
    In China, the folding fan came into fashion during the Ming dynasty between the years of 1368 and 1644, and Hangzhou was a center of folding fan production. The Mai Ogi (or Chinese dancing fan) has ten sticks and a thick paper mount showing the family crest. Chinese painters crafted many fan decoration designs. The slats, of ivory, bone, mica, mother of pearl, sandalwood, or tortoise shell, were carved and covered with paper or fabric. Folding fans have "montures" which are the sticks and guards. The leaves are usually painted by craftsman. Social significance was attached to the fan in the Far East. The management of the fan became a highly regarded feminine art. The function and employment of the fan reached its high point of social significance (fans were even used as a weapon - called the iron fan, or tiě shān in Chinese, tessen in Japanese). Simple Japanese paper fans are sometimes known as "harisen". In Japanese current pop culture, Harisen are featured frequently in animation and graphic novels as weapons. 
    Printed fan leaves and painted fans are done on a paper ground. The paper was originally hand made and displayed the characteristic watermarks. Machine made paper fans, introduced in the 19th century, are smoother with an even texture.
    Folding fans (扇子 Japanese "sensu", Chinese: "shŕnzi";) continue to be important cultural symbols and popular tourist souvenirs in East Asia. Geisha of all types (but maiko most often) use folding fans in their fan dances as well."
-   Fans - History (Wikipedia)  



"The origin of this common and special artifact is quite uncertain. It can be assumed that the origin of the fan can be found in prehistoric times, when humans discover fire and use any kind of object to blow air and keep it alive.  Thanks to artistic representations of this object, we know that fans were used by Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks and Romans. From Egypt, the oldest known representation its in the head of a ceremonial hammer that can be seen at the Asmolean Museum of Oxford.  It belonged to "Narmer", that around 3000 BCE and for the first time united high and low Egypt.  This representation shows a group of royal servants, two of them are slaves carrying fans. 
    China's centennial fan tradition starts at Emperor Hsien Yuan's time (about 2697 BCE).  A legend claims that the invention of the fan belongs to the daughter of Kan-Si. The story tells that during a mask ball and to avoid heat, she shacked very fast her mask very close to her face, so male guests could not recognize her. Her gesture was imitated by the rest of the ladies attending to the ball.  Some authors declare that the earliest archaeological proof of the existence of the fan belongs to the 8th century for the fixed fan in China, and to the 9th century for the folding fan in Japan."
Origin of Hand Fans



"With its profound culture, the Chinese Fan is the part of the principal section of traditional Chinese folk custom, which is closely related to the culture of Bamboo and Buddhism. Historically China is well known as the kingdom of fan making. Fan is made from Bamboo, wood, paper, ivory, hawksbill, jade, feather, as well as palm leaf, areca leaf, straw of wheat, cattail leaf and so forth. With these materials, fan is made into a variety of crafts. Fan is beautifully shaped and refined with hundred folded art value after carved, ironed, drilled or printed by famous craftsman or written by famous persons. The Chinese fan culture was originated from ancient time. Our ancestor used feather and leaf with simple processing to shield the sunlight and weave for cooling. Fan has more than three thousand year history in China. After reform and improvement, it was developed to hundred of families. In all fans were classified into two types. One is flat, the other is folding fan.  Folding fan, also known as head gathering fan in ancient times, was named because its two ends could be met together when folded, It was manufactured in southern Song dynasty and became popular in Ming dynasty. During Ming and Qing dynasties, folding fan reached a period of great prosperity. And the end rib of fan was made from precious materials such as ivory, rood wood, bird bone processed by carving to form different shapes like ruyi, violin, wave, mantis’ leg while the fan rivet was shaped as a bottle, gold fish, water chest nut, olive etc. As to the fan covering it was painted, written on poems and articles, some were related to Buddhism culture. In the stage fan was looked as a tool to express the mood of the actors or actress. Many Chinese ancient literatures made fan the clue of the story development. In southern China, a gentleman used fan as the gift to his fiancee when he indicated the engagement. From Tang dynasty fan became the country’s gift to its neighbor country. Till now people like to give a fan to their friends as a gift."
-   Fan Culture



"The process of mastering the Taoist Purple Butterfly doctrine consists of five different levels.  Level 1 is the art of gathering the external alchemic element by using Water.  This art focuses on developing the sensitivity of the body and facilitates the ability to direct and absorb the energy by using Water.   Level 2 is the art of gathering the external alchemic element by using Wood.  This level focuses on developing the principles of working with the body by using a fan.   Level 3 is the art of gathering the external alchemic element by using Metal.  This means an ability to keep what you have gathered by using a fan.   Level 4 is the art of gathering the external alchemic element by using Fire.  Level 4 is fundamental in this practice because it helps us to develop our inner fire and strengthen our internal breathing, which also corresponds to the concept of  'the inner fan.'   Level 1 is the art of gathering the external alchemic element by using Earth.  This level enables us to fasten our internal and external links by using a fan."
Daoist Alchemy, Taijiquan Fan      



"Fans are an important distinctive of the Chinese culture which are traditionally used not only with practical purposes but according to symbolisms as well. Chinese fans show traditional drawings which represent different objects and elements very symbolic to the oriental culture.  According to mythic stories, the phoenix died and then rose from its own ashes. This way, the main aspect which a phoenix symbolizes for those who see it is immortality. Besides, and due to the way it could come back from death, it also represents health, strength and power. Therefore, a phoenix is a very symbolic mythic creature which carries a very powerful meaning due to the fact that it can be easily understood by people from many different cultures.  In feng shui, a phoenix is often used whenever a person wishes to improve his health. This is done by placing the phoenix by the person's bed or at the house spot which his health personal kua number indicates. The phoenix is also recommended by feng shui practitioners whenever a person lacks self confidence and wishes to improve his power and strength. In order to achieve this, the person should carry a phoenix lucky charm with him and allow it to help him at any situation which involves self confidence and strength."
-   Symbolism of a Phoenix Fan



"The first Chinese fans were nothing more than bird feathers or large leaves. Tradition holds that King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty in the 11th century B.C. invented the Chinese hand-held fan, and the oldest known Chinese hand held fan was found in China in 1982 and is approximately 2,300 years old. The earliest half-moon fans were constructed of silk wrapped around bamboo spokes that were arranged in a semi-circle. Fans were used only by the members of the royal court for many centuries, only becoming available to the general public during the Han Dynasty, 206 B.C. - 220 A.D. While the Chinese are credited with the invention of the half-moon hand held fan, these first fans did not fold like modern ones do. The folding half-moon fan was brought to China in the 11th century A.D. from Japan. Today Chinese fans are still made from the traditional bamboo and silk materials, and also of paper, wood, bone, palm tree leaves and other materials."
-   Alan Beggerow  



"Screen fans were used in China. The earliest fans in China are made from bamboo and dates back to the 2nd century BC. The Chinese pictorial word depiction of a fan shows feathers under a rood. The word pien-mien means to ‘agitate air’. Here too fans and social standing were linked together. Each class and gender had special fans. The folded fan made its debut in Japan in about the 6th century. Akomeogi is the Japanese name for the folding fan. During the Heian period the nobility held these fans when they were in formal attire. Tiny strips of hinoki (cypress trees of Japan) were tied together by a thread. The person’s rank determined the number of wood strips that were to be stringed. Shinto priests use it even today wearing formal costume when they attend the coronation of the Emperor or marriage ceremonies. The fans are brightly painted with long tassels.  The Chinese variety consists of a row of feathers fixed on a handle. It came into vogue during the Ming dynasty. The centre of production of folding fans was Hangzhou. The Chinese dancing fan is the Mai Ogi. It has ten sticks mounted on thick paper depicting the family crest. The slats were made of various materials – bone, ivory, mother of pearl, mica, sandalwood or tortoise shell. These were carved and then covered with paper of some fabric. Fanning the fan became a highly sophisticated art courts and women were the most adept at it."
The Origin of the Fan



"The folding fan was also known as a "Head-gathering fan" because its two ends meet together when folded. The fan was first manufactured in the Song Dynasty (960-1279) and became popular in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).  In the society of aristocrats and scholars, fans were used throughout the year because to them, fans were more a decoration than a tool.  The folding fan almost became a symbol of scholars. They would wave their fans to show off their grace when composing or thinking about poetry. When not in use, the fans were concealed inside sleeves or hung from the waist.  Fans also contained paintings or poems or calligraphy on both sides and fans with a famous artist's painting or calligraphy would be highly prized.  In Chinese history, many fan masterpieces were made from bamboo and feathers. There were also "Fading trees fans", "Autumn forest fans" and "Chrysanthemum fans", all with paintings by famous artists of ancient times. These folding fans were sought by scholars to add to their elegant collections."







    I began to study the Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan Form, created by Professor Li Deyin, in April of 2009.  Our Valley Spirit Taijiquan Study Group in Red Bluff, California, began to study this Tai Chi Fan form in May of 2009.  I purchased the instructional DVDs by Grandmaster Li Deyin and Master Jesse Tsao (listed above) and I have used these as the performance standard for this fan form; and, I have encouraged everyone in our Valley Spirit Taijiquan Study Group to purchase one of the two instructional DVDs for their private home studies.  We also studied numerous UTube video performances of this popular form (listed above).  We studied and practiced this form together at our Monday and Saturday Tai Chi class at the Tehama Family Fitness Center, and at our homes.  I have kept detailed notes on my studies of this Tai Chi Kung Fu Fan Form, and provided handouts to members of our Tai Chi Study Group.  This webpage on the Tai Chi Fan was created and first published online in April of 2009. 

    I welcome your comments, ideas, additions and suggestions.  Send your Email to Mike Garofalo.   





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© Green Way Research, Valley Spirit Center, Red Bluff, California
    Michael P. Garofalo, 2009-2012, All Rights Reserved

First published on the Internet in May, 2009. 

This webpage was last modified or updated on May 2, 2012. 


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