Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore
Yoga, Qigong, T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Meditation, Lore
Air, Prana, Penuma, Chi, T'u Na, Vital Energy, Qi, Pranayama, Breath
"In the case of a living being, this 'breath' (pneuma) was that
particular combination of air and fire that
was called psyche (life-soul), and by penetrating all the tissues it made them
live tissues. Similarly, in the macrocosm, God was conceived as a breath penetrating and controlling and
unifying the whole of
the world. This unifying breath was the worlds' psyche: the world was a
living being, as indeed it had
been for Plato in the Timaeus, and it was animated by a perfect
intelligence. This conclusion is best
seen as an act of faith, inspiring and comforting."
- F. H. Sandback, The Stoics, p. 75
"The respiratory center of the brain, which receives chemical, reflex,
somatic and cerebral
inputs, is a good computer in automatically regulating the rate, depth and
pattern of respiration
under various situations. Artificial regulation during physical exercise
is not the best for
- Journal of the American Medical Association 246:1967, 1981.
"The form of energy composing the chakras and currents in the subtle
body is unknown to
science. The Hindus call it prana, which means literally
"life" - that is "life-force." The Chinese
call it chi, the Polynesians mana, the Amerindians orenda,
and the ancient Germans od. It is
an all-pervasive "organic" energy. In modern times, the
pyschiatrist Wilhelm Reich attempted
to resuscitate this notion in his concept of the orgone, but he met with
hostility from the scientific establishment. More recently, Russian parapsychologists have
notion of bioplasma, which is explained as a radiant energy field
- Georg Feuerstein, "Yoga: The Technology of Ecstasy," 1989, p.258.
"The Chinese character for qi is usually translated into English as "vital energy" or "life force," although its literal meaning is "breath." No modern Western idea corresponds exactly to the range of meanings of qi. It is the central explanatory concept in the Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor's Inner Book), the most comprehensive early medical document in China (c 50 B.C.). In an analysis of qi within the Chen tradition, nineteenth-generation Inheritor Chen Zhenglei suggests that:
It does not refer to the oxygen breathed into
the chest and the different kinds of strength (Li)
in the human body, but refers to - from Traditional Chinese Medicine - Correct Qi (Zhen Qi),
Original Qi (Yuan Qi), Meridian Qi (Jingluo Zi Qi), Refined Qi (Zhen Qi), and from the study of
martial arts and qigong, Internal Jing ((Neijing) and Internal Work (Neigong).
Qi exists in the human body without form, color or substance. The
ancient Chinese likened it to fire,
and early Chinese pictographic characters depicted it as "sun" and
"fire." Within Daoist literature
qi was seen as a form of vital heat akin to sunlight, without which life could
not exist. Today, the most
widely used character for qi depicts steam rising from cooking rice."
- Davidine Sim and David Gaffney, Chen Style Taijiquan, 2002, p. 44-45.
"The air they breathe, being a living element with both physical and
psychical properties, carries a subtle
vital energy. This in India is named by the Sanskrit word prana; in
Tibet it is called sugs, in Aikido, Japan, ki, and in China, chi. By controlling its circulation
throughout the body, man is able to attain spiritual enlightenment or illumination."
- Frank Waters, Mountain Dialogues, p. 70
"One of the most important terms in Taoist lore is Ch'i. The word
has been variously translated as:
passion nature, material principle, constitutive ethers, force, energy, breath,
power, great breath, etc."
- R. G. H. Siu, Ch'i, p 256
"The men of old breathed clear down to their heels."
- Chuang Tzu
When I feel blue I start to breathe.
"In 1973, a silk book, Fasting and Taking Qi (Que Gu Shi Qi Pian) and
a silk painting Daoyin Chart (Dao Yin Tu) of the Western Han dynasty (206 B.C. - A.D. 24) were
unearthed from the Han Dynasty Tomb Mawangdui No. 3 in Changsha, Hunan Province. The book records
the Daoyin method for guiding Qi and the chart covers 44 colored paintings
presenting human figures imitating the movements of a wolf, monkey, ape, bear, crane, hawk, and
vulture. Thus, they reveal that the Chinese began to teach Qigong pictorially as early as the
beginning of the Western Han dynasty."
- History of Qigong
"The pneuma which is mixed with the two inert elements in any physical
thing is at once moving outwards
towards the surface and inwards towards the center. The outward movement
gives the object size, shape,
and other qualities, the inward integrates it, causes it to be one thing, a
- F. H. Sandback, The Stoics, p. 77
"Breathing Out -
Touching the Root of Heaven,
One's heart opens;
The Dragon slips into the water..
Breathing In -
Standing on the Root of Earth,
One's heart is still and deep;
The Tiger's claw cannot be moved.
As you go on breathing in this frame of mind, with these associations, alternating between movement and stillness, it is important that the focus of your mind does not shift. Let the true breath come and go, a subtle continuum on the brink of existence. Tune the breathing until you get breath without breathing; become one with it, and then the spirit can be solidified and the elixir can be made."
- Chang San-Feng, Commentary on Ancestor Lu's Hundred-Character Tablet
Translated by Thomas Cleary, Vitality, Energy, Spirit: A Taoist Sourcebook, 1991, p. 187.
Poetic interpretation by Mike Garofalo of expository text of Chang San-Feng.
"If I had to limit my advice on healthier living to just one tip, it would
to learn how to breathe correctly."
- Andrew Weil, M.D., 1999
"Viruses and microbes live best in low oxygen environments. They
are anaerobic. That
means, raise the oxygen environment around them and they die."
- Edward Mccabe
"Only those who know how to breathe will survive."
- Pundit Acharya
"While doing postures [yoga asanas], as a general rule keep the airway
wide open, breathe only through the nose, and breathe smoothly, evenly and quietly."
- H. David Coulter, Anatomy of Hatha Yoga, p. 18.
" Energy is the essential stuff for structural integrity and mechanical
and chemical processes, while ch'i is the essential stuff for pattern perpetuity and thinking and
feeling. While energy
metabolism accounts for the vigor of health in the physical sense,
for the well being of the person in the psychic sense."
- R. G. H. Siu, Ch'i, p 263
"Breathing control gives man strength, vitality, inspiration, and magic
- Chuang Tzu
"Without full awareness of breathing, there can be no development of
stability and understanding."
- Thich Nhat Hanh
"For the living man, the psyche is a 'breath,' a compound of air
and 'constructive' fire, that extends throughout his body, with which it is totally blended, giving life and warmth,
growth and maintenance.
But there is a part, call the hegemonikon or centre of command, lodging
in the heart, which is the
seat of sensation, assent, impulse, passion, thought and reason. From this
there extend seven
breaths to the eyes, ears, mouth, nose, and skin to convey the incoming stimuli
- F. H. Sandback, The Stoics, p. 83
"Ancient daoyin methods began to mature during the Warring States
The inscription on a jade article of this period, now preserved at the Museum of
Tianjin, is the earliest extant writing about ancient daoyin practice. Carved on a small
jade ornament with 12 surfaces, it is an ancient-style prose composed of 45 Chinese
characters, which was translated by the late poet and historian Guo Moruo into the vernacular as
follows: ''Draw a deep breath, direct it downward and let it stay there. Then exhale and
direct the breath upward like a growing sprout, in a direction just opposite to the
inhaling route and up to its dead end. The heavenly essence thus goes up and the earthly essence
comes down. One who follows this law will live, otherwise one will die." This is
a description of the whole process of breathing in daoyin practice."
- Ancient Daoyin: Mother of Modern Qigong
"And now I see with eye serene,
The very pulse of the machine.
A being breathing thoughtful breaths,
A traveler between life and death."
- William Wordsworth
"Of greater interest are differences in the actual practice of T'ai Chi
Masters give conflicting instructions for breathing. Books by Cheng
Man-ch'ing do not specify
when to breathe in or out. In Body Mechanics of T'ai Chi Ch'uan, William
Chen instructs you
to breathe in when you push. In Imagination Becomes Reality, T.T. Liang
instructs you to
breath out when you push. In Yang Style T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Dr. Yang
Jwing-Ming teaches you
to breathe out when pushing, but using "reverse-brathing" in which the
abdomen is pulled
in while breathing in and pushed out while breathing out. Perhaps there is
one correct way to practice. The instructions of any one skilled teacher
or author should
not be taken as gospel."
- Dan Mozell, "Objectivity in the Internal Arts"
Internal Arts, Vol. 3, #4, July 1988, p. 14
"Deep flowing breath is essentially arousing and exciting."
- Michael Sky
"Regulate the breathing, and thereby control the mind."
- B.K.S. Iyengar
"There is one way of breathing that is shameful and constricted.
Then there's another way; a breath of love that takes you all the way to infinity."
"Breathe the old out and the new in."
- Adage of Taoist Breathing Practices (Tu Na)
"Today, I want you to notice
how you're breathing throughout the day. This simple activity can
tell you the state of your nervous system -- and by learning to control your
breathing, you can influence the regulation of your heart rate, blood pressure, circulation, and
you have more control over exhalations, focusing on this part of your breathing
is one good
way of learning how to breathe deeper. Use the muscles between your ribs to squeeze air out of your lungs -- when you move more air out, you will automatically take more air in. As you breathe in and out, think of the cycle as having no beginning or end. Practice this exercise as often as you like, but I recommend doing it at least once each day."
- Andrew Weil, M.D., Good Morning From Dr. Weil, On-line Newsletter, 6/9/2003
"Your breathing determines
whether you are at your best or whether you are at
- Carola H. Speads
"For breath is life, and if
you breathe well you will live long on earth."
- Sanskrit Proverb
"Nearly every physical
problems is accompanied by a disturbance of breathing.
But which comes first?"
- Hans Weller, M.D.
"According to a long-held
tradition, Huang Ti, the so-called Yellow Emperor, who began
his rule around 2700 B. C., practiced a form of exercise called Tao Yin
with the aim of increasing his life span. The word Tao means "guide," and
Yin means "leading." These
terms give a hint of how the exercise works: the movements of the limbs guide
the circulation of the blood so that the tissues throughout the body can be repaired
and cleansed more efficiently. The movements also lead the breath in and out
of the lungs,
so that more oxygen can be inhaled to nourish and energize the body and the
can be exhaled more efficiently. ... Essential to the practice of Tao
Yin was the way in
which the movements of the limbs were combined with the breathing. It is
combination that make the exercise so beneficial for health. Huang Ti's
exercises were also know as T'u Na. The word T'u means
"exhale," and Na means "inhale."
- Dau Liu, T'ai Chi Ch'uan and Meditation, 1986, p. 3.
"Improper breathing is a common cause of ill health."
- Andrew Weil, M.D.
"Emotional and physical states can be altered by changing the breathing
- Wilhelm Reich
"Pranayama is the regulation of the incoming and outgoing flow of
retention. It is to be practiced only after perfection in asana
posture/form) is attained. Pranayama has three movements; prolonged
fine inhalation, exhalation and retention; all regulated with precision
to duration and place. The fourth type of pranayama transcends the
external and internal pranayamas, and appears effortless and non-deliberate. Pranayama enables the mind to become fit for concentration, and removes the veil covering the light of knowledge and heralds the dawn of wisdom."
- The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, 11:49-53, c 500-200 BC
Translated by B. K. S. Iyengar
"Breathing is the first place, not the last, one should look when
or other evidence of disordered energy presents itself."
- Sheldon Saul Hendler, M.D.
Essential to the practice of qigong and taijiquan is the control of breathing, the coordination of breathing with specific movements, the requirement to do deep adominal breathing, relaxing and opening the upper torso to allow for deeper breathing, and the release of breath when power is given out.
"Fear is excitement without the breath."
- Fritz Perls, M.D.
"One of yoga's great gifts to
making is the discovery of the link that
energy, breath, and mind. As you change one, you also change the other
two. If you
excite one, the other two become excited and, conversely, if you calm one, the
two respond by becoming calm also."
- John Novak, Lessons in Meditation, p. 27
"The first task of breath control is to regulate, or harmonize, the
various life currents
in the body. The second task is to guide the life force (prana)
along the central axis,
the sushumna-nadi ("most gracious conduit"), which extends from
the lowest energy center or cakra at the base of the spine to the energy center at the
crown of the head.
This is the acknowledged method for achieving both health and ecstasy (samadhi) through the awakening the serpent power, the "support of all Yoga
as the Hatha-Yoga-Pradipika (III.1) puts it. Through breath control
the yogin energizes
and harmonizes the body and thus creates a solid foundation for mental
and the induction of higher states of consciousness, as well as the complete
of the body-mind in the moment of enlightenment."
- The Shambhala Guide to Yoga, Georg Feuerstein, p. 77
"Breathing in, I calm body and mind,
Breathing out, I smile.
Dwelling in the present moment,
I know this is the only moment."
- Thich Nhat Hanh
Opening Hands, Closing Hands
"Standing at the Mysterious
Centered in the Eternal Now,
Balanced in Body and Open in Mind,
Rooted into the Sacred Space,
Motionless as the Golden Mountain,
Fingers around the Primeval Sphere.
Dragons and Tigers are still dreaming -
Ready for Rebirth.
I breathe in, the World Breathes Out.
The Gate of Space opens;
Heaven moves and Yang is born.
The hands move out, embracing the One.
The mind settles and is clear.
The Dragon Howls,
Ravens fill the Vast Cauldron,
Mind forms melt like mercury,
Spirit rises in the Clouds of Eternity.
Yin appears like the moon at dusk.
I breathe out, the World Breathes In.
The Doors of Emptiness close;
Earth quiets and Yin is born.
The hands move in, entering the One.
The body settles and becomes whole.
The Tiger Roars,
The Great Ox is nourished by the Valley Spirit,
Substances spark from flaming furnaces,
Essence roots in the Watery Flesh.
Yang appears like the sun at dawn.
Dragons and Tigers
Transformed within the Mysterious Pass -
Chanting and Purring.
- Michael P. Garofalo, Opening
at the Mysterious Pass
Opening Hands and Closing Hands in Sun Taijiquan
"Ninety percent of metabolic
oxygen comes from breathing. Ten percent
comes from food."
- Gabriel Cousens, M.D.
Bibliography and Links
Breathing: Techniques, Practices, Exercises, Theory, Lore
Yoga, Qigong, T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Meditation, Lore
Air, Prana, Penuma, Chi, T'u Na, Vital Energy, Qi, Pranayama, Breath
Alphabetical Index to the Cloud Hands website.
Alternate Nostril Breathing (Nadi Sodhana)
Anatomy of Hatha Yoga: A Manual for Students, Teachers and Practitioners. By H. David Coulter. Foreward by Timothy McCall. Honesdale, Pennsylvania, Body and Breath, 2001. Index, bibliography, appendices, 623 pages. ISBN: 0970700601. 2002 winner of the Benjamin Franklin Award for Health, Wellness and Nutrition.
Anatomy of Movement. By Blandine Calais-Germain. Seattle, Washington, Eastland Press, 1985, 1993. Translated from the French by Nicole Commarmond. Index, 289 pages. ISBN: 0939616173.
"The Anti-Drug for Anxiety." By Stacie Stukin. Yoga Journal, April, 2003, pp. 108-113. A brief discussion of pranayama techniques used to reduce anxiety.
Articles on Breathing, Health, Qigong, Taoism. Authentic Breathing Resources.
The Art of Breathing: Six Simple Lessons to Improve Performance, Health, and Well-Being. By Nancy Zi. Frog Ltd., 2000. 4th Edition. 240 pages. ISBN: 1583940340.
Ashtanga Yoga " Practice Manual" An Illustrated Guide to Personal Practice. The Primary and Intermediate Series plus Three Short forms. By David Swenson. Foreward by K. Pattabhi Jois. Ashtanga Yoga Productions, 1999. 263 pages. ISBN: 1891252089.
Ashtanga Yoga: The Definitive Step-by-Step Guide to Dynamic Yoga. By John Scott. Foreward by Shri K. Pattabhi Jois. New York, Three Rivers Press, 2000. Index, bibliography, 143 pages. ISBN: 0609807862.
Authentic Breathing Articles, links, exercises, resources, products. Articles by Dennis Lewis.
Awareness Through Movement; Health Exercises for Personal Growth. Easy to Do Health Exercises to Improve Your Posture, Vision, Imagination and Personal Awareness. By Moshe Feldenkrais. San Francisco, Harper Collins, 1972, 1977. 173 pages. ISBN: 0062503227.
Basic Yoga Breathing Control 25Kb.
Beginner's Guide to Healthy Breathing. By Kenneth Cohen. 73 minute CD.
Belly Breathing. By Dennis Lewis.
Books about Breathing Annotated links.
Breath, Breathing and Pranayama Numerous articles.
Breathe Better, Feel Better. H. Kent.
Breathe Deep - The Qigong Newsletter
Breathe Well, Be Well. By Robert Fried. John Wiley & Sons, 1999. 224 pages. ISBN: 0471324361. Subtitle: A Program to Relieve Stress, Anxiety, Asthma, Hypertension, Migraine, and Other Disorders for Better Health.
Breathe! You Are Alive: Sutra on the Full Awareness of Breathing. By Thich Nhat Hanh. Brekeley, Parallax Press, 1960.
"Breathing and Higher Accomplishments." By Wu Ta-yeh. Internal Arts, Vol. 4, No. 2, April 1989, pp. 36 - 38. An excellent article that critically examines the issue of using breath control during the practice of Taijiquan. Wu recommends "that beginners completely forget their breathing in learning the solo forms exercise of Taijiquan," and that intermediate and advanced students interested in self-defense make limited use of specialized breathing techniques in selected postures. He defends the position that the manipulation of breath in the solo form or in gigong can be injurious to one's well being.
Breathing and Taijichuan.
Breathing and Yoga: Lowering Stress 10Kb.
Breathing as a Metaphor for Living: Teachings and Exercises on Complete and Natural Breathing. By Dennis Lewis. A two-cassette audio-tape program. Boulder, Colorado, Sounds True, 1998.
The Breathing Book: Good Health and Vitality Throught Essential Breath Work. By Donna Farhi. Henry Holt, 1996. 238 pages. ISBN: 0805042970.
Breathing Exercises (Qigong) and Articles
Breathing Exercises - Yoga 15Kb.
Breathing Free: The Revolutionary 5-Day Program to Heal Asthma, Emphysema, Bronchitis and Other Respiratory Ailments. By Therese Hale. Foreword by Leo Galland, M.D.. Three Rivers Press, 2000. 304 pages. ISBN: 0609806343.
Breathing in the Practice of Tai Chi Chuan By Greg Brodsky.
Breathing Lessons. By Anne Tyler. Berkley Publishing Group, Reissue Edition, 1994. 352 pages. ISBN: 042511774X.
Breathing Practices and Pranayama. By Swami Jnaneshvara Bharati. 89KB.
Breathing Techniques: Qigong, Yoga, Taijiquan
Breathing Techniques - Kundalini Yoga 34Kb
Breathing: The Master Key to Self Healing. By Andrew Weil. A audio product read by Andrew Weil. Sounds True, 1999. 110 pages. ISBN: 156455726X.
Breathing Work with Dennis Lewis
Chen Style of T'ai Chi Ch'uan
Chi Commentary, quotations, links, bibliography.
Ch'i. By R. G. H. Siu.
Chi Kung Breathing Practice 10Kb. Outlines tummy, complete, and circular breathing techniques.
C'hi: The Power Within. By Geoff Pike and Phyllis Pike. Chi Kung Breathing Exercises for Health, Relaxation and Energy. Boston, Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1993. Index, 272 pages. ISBN: 0804830991.
Cloud Hands Blog By Mike Garofalo.
Cloud Hands: Tai Chi Chuan and Qi Gong
Conscious Breathing: Breathwork for Health, Stress Release, and Person Mastery. By Gay Hendricks. Bantam Books, 1995. 189 pages. ISBN: 0553374435. According to the author "Conscious Breathing: releases stress and tension, builds energy and endurance, contributes to emotional mastery, prevents and heals physical problems, contributes to graceful aging, manages pain, enhances mental concentration and physical performance, and facilitates psychospiritual transformation," pp. 5-31.
Cultivating the Chi: The Secrets of Energy and Vitality. Compiled and translated by Stuart Alve Olson. Revised and expanded third edition. Chen Kung Series, Volume One.
St. Paul, Minnesota, Dragon Door Publications, 1993. Index, 166 pages. ISBN: 0938045113.
Dao House: Of Discourses and Dreams "A compendium of links to great online Daoist (Taoist) resources." An excellent selection of fine links with informative and fair annotations; all presented in an attractive and easy to read format. The in-depth and creative collection of links are arranged by 18 topics. The attention to detail and research involved to create this guide are worthy of high praise. This website is outstanding! A must visit for students and enthusiasts of Taoism.
Deep Breathing in Savasana (Corpse Pose)
Deergha Swasam - Three- Part Breathing Technique
Dr. Breath: the Story of Breathing Coordination. By Carl Stough and Reece Stough. New York, NY, Stough Institute, 1982.
Eight Section Brocade Qigong By Michael P. Garofalo. Provides information about the history and purpose of this popular Chi Kung practice. Detailed descriptions are provided for each of the eight movements; including information on movement variations, health benefits, qigong meaning, and cautions. The document includes the most extensive bibliography, link guide, and comments on Ba Duan Jin Qigong resources available anywhere. This document is updated as new information is discovered. This qigong set is the most popular set practiced around the world, and is also known as: Baduanjin, Pa Tuan Jin, Eight Silken Treasures, Ba Duan Jin, Pal Dan Gum, Ba Duan Gin, Pa Tin Kam, Otto Pezzi di Tesoro, Acht Delen Brokaat, Les Huit Exercices del la Soie, Eight Silken Treasures, Brocade Qigong, Wudang Brocade Qigong, Brocade soft qigong (Rou Gong), Eight Treasures inner qigong (Nei Gong), Silk Treasures Qigong, and the first eight Buddha Lohan Hands.
Elements of The Human Body By R. L. Alsaker, M. D.; Author of "Eating for Health and Efficiency."
The Eligibility Rule Grammar and Ontology (ERGO)
Five Animal Frolics Chi Kung
Fitness and Well Being
Four Ergo Elements
Free Your Breath, Free Your Life. How Conscious Breathing Can Relieve Stress, Increase Vitality, and Help You Live More Fully. By Dennis Lewis. Boston, Shambhala Press, 2004. Index, recommended reading, 193 pages. ISBN: 1590301331. Reviews.
Greenway Research Red Bluff, California
Hatha Yoga Breathing. By Rich Szabo. 18Kb.
The Healing Path of Yoga. Time-Honored Wisdom and Scinetifically Proven Methods that Alleviate Stress, Open Your Heart, and Enrich Your Life. By Nischala Joy Devi. New York, Three Rivers Press, 2000. Index, 238 pages. ISBN: 0609805029.
The Healing Promise of Qi: Creating Extraordinary Wellness Through Qigong and Tai Chi. By Roger Jahnke, O.M.D.. Chicago, Contemporary Books, 2002. Index, notes, extensive recommended reading list, 316 pages. ISBN: 0809295288.
How to Calm Down: Three Deep Breaths to Peace of Mind. By Fred L. Miller and Mark Bryan. Warner Books, 2003. 128 pages. ISBN: 0446679712.
Healing with Ki-Kou: The Secrets of Ancient Chinese Breathing Techniques. By Li Xiu-ling. Agora Health Books, 2nd Edition, 2003. 156 pages. ISBN: 1891434179.
Healing Sounds: Six Daoist Healing Sounds
Jumpstart Your Metabolism: How to Lose Weight By Changing the Way You Breathe. By Pam Grout. Fireside, 1998. 192 pages. ISBN: 0684843463.
Light on Prānāyāma: The Yogic Art of Breathing By B.K.S. Iyengar. Introduction by Yehudi Menuhin. New York, Crossroad Pub. Co., 2012. Originally published in 1985 in English. Index, glossary, appendices, 296 pages. ISBN: 9780824506865. VSCL.
Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: Patanjala Yoga Pradipika. Hammersmith, London, Thorsons, Harper-Collins, 1966, 1996. 337 pages. ISBN: 1855382253.
The Little Book of Yoga Breathing; Pranayama Made Easy. By Scott Shaw. Red Wheel, Weiser, 2004. 96 pages. ISBN: 157863301X.
Muscle/Tendon Changing and Marrow/Bone Washing Chi Kung. The Secret of Youth. By Yang, Jwing Ming. Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, Yang's Martial Arts Association,
1989. Glossary, 286 pages. ISBN: 0940871068.
Musician: Physician for Times to Come. By Don Campbell, Editor. Wheaton, Illinois, Quest Books, 2000.
Nadi Sodhana - Alternate Nostril Breathing
Nine Segment Buddhist Breathing Qigong. Master Shou-Yu Liang and Wen-Ching Wu. Rhode Island, Way of the Dragon Pub., 1997. Instructional videotape, 50 minutes.
Oxycise! Easy Does It. By Jill Johnson.
The Perceptible Breath: A Breathing Science. By Ilse Middendorf. Paderborn, Germany, Junfermann-Verlag, 1990.
Pilates: Links, Bibliography, Resources, Quotes, Notes
Prana, Pneuma, Air, Chi, Qi: Taijiquan and Breathing
Pranayama Beyond the Fundamentals: An In-Depth Guide to Yogic Breathing By Richard Rosen. Includes an instructional audion CD. Boston, Shambhala, 2006. Index, bibliography, glossary, notes, 214 pages. ISBN: 1590302982. VSCL.
"Prescriptions for Pranayama." By Claudia Cummins. Yoga Journal, 2001.
The Primordial Breath: An Ancient Chinese Way of Prolonging Life Through Breath Control. Translated by Jan Huang. Translations from the Tao Tsang in the Taoist Canon. Volumes 1 and 2. Torrance, California, Original Books, 1987.
Qi Gong Bibliography and Links
Qigong Breathing and Overcoming Depression
Qigong Meditation: Embroyonic Breathing. By Yang, Jwing-Ming. YMAA Publications, 2003. 389 pages. ISBN: 1886969736.
Qi Theory 14K
Qi Gong for Beginners: Eight Easy Movements for Vibrant Health. By Stanley D. Wilson. Photographs by Barry Kaplan. Sterling Publications, 1997. 148 pages. ISBN: 0915801752. See pages 23-32.
Relaxing Into Your Being. The Water Method of Taoist Meditation Series, Volume 1. By Bruce Kumar Frantzis. Fairfax, California, Clarify Press, 1998. Reader's Edition. 208 pages. ISBN: No ISBN given. VSCL.
Relaxation in Taijiquan and Qigong
Ripening Peaches: Daoist Studies and Practices
Roar of Silence: Healing Powers of Breath, Tone and Music. Wheaton, Illinois, Theosophical Publishing House, 1994.
The Root of Chinese Chi Kung: The Secrets of Chi Kung Training. By Yang Jwing-Ming. YMAA Chi Kung Series #1. Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, Yang's Martial Arts Association, 1989. Glossary, 272 pages. ISBN: 0940871076.
Savasana (Corpse Pose) Deep Breathing Techniques
Science of Breath. By Swami Rama, Rudolph Ballentine, M.D. and Alan Hymes, M.D.. Honesdale, Pennsylvania, Himalayan Institute, 1981.
Secrets of Optimal Natural Breathing. By Michael Grant White. Waynesville, North Carolina, Optimal Breathing Press, 2003.
Scientific Basis of Qigong
Seven Stars Qigong Breathing Exercises Instructions and line drawings.
Shaolin and Taijiquan (Medicine) Ball Qigong and Strengthening Exercises
Spring Forest Qigong Detailed instructions for this form.
Standing (Zhang Zhuang) Mediation
Sun Style of Taijiquan
Sung (Relaxation) and Taijiquan
T'ai Chi Ch'uan and Meditation. By Da Liu. New York, Schocken Books, 1986, 1991. Index, 173 pages. ISBN: 080520993X. Refer to pages: 49-59.
"Taoist Breath Work in T'ai Chi." By Charlie Fechter. T'ai Chi: The International Magazine of T'ai Chi Ch'uan: Vol. 27, No. 6, December, 2003, pp.44-47.
The Tao of Natural Breathing: For Health, Well Being, and Inner Growth. By Dennis Lewis. Mountain Wind Pub., 1997. Index, 208 pages. ISBN: 0965161102. Foreword by Taoist Master Mantak Chia. Information. More information.
Thirteen Treasures Walking Qigong.
Three- Part Breathing (Deergha Swasam)
Traditional Chinese Medicine - Qi Theory An in-depth essay.
Traditional Yoga Breathing Techniques
Transform Stress Into Vitality. By Mantak Chia. Huntington, New Jersey, Healing Tao Books, 1985. Includes the Taoist practices of the Inner Smile, Six Healing Sounds, and Microcosmic Orbit.
Types of Paranayama
Valley Spirit Qigong Guides, Lessons, History, Bibliography, Links. By Mike Garofalo, Red Bluff, California.
Vitality, Energy, Spirit: A Taoist Sourcebook. Translated and edited by Thomas Cleary. Boston, Shambhala, 1991. 281 pages. ISBN: 0877735190.
Warriors of Stillness: Meditative Traditions in the Chinese Martial Arts. Volume 1. The Teachings of Grandmaster Cai Song Fang. Qigong Qi of the Center, Essence of Taijiquan. By Jan Diepersloot. Walnut Creek, California, Center for Healing and the Arts. Glossary, 226 pages. ISBN: 0964997606. A study of Wu Ji meditation, 13 postures, and push hands.
The Ways of Walking: Quotes, Bibliography, Links, Resources
Ways to Better Breathing. By Carola Speads. Rochester, Vermont, Healing Arts, Press, 1992.
Yang Style of T'ai Chi Ch'uan
Yi Jin Jing Qigong (Muscle/Tendon Changing Qigong): Bibliography, Links, Resources, Lessons. By Mike Garofalo.
Yoga: Bibliography, Links, Resources, Quotes, Notes
Yoga and Breathing
Yoga Breathing: The Art of Pranayama. By Richard Freeman. 150 minutes, CD.
Yoga Breathing - Google Links
Yoga Breathing Exercises
Yoga Breathing (Pranayama) - The Art of Yoga Breathing Many articles on the subject.
The Yoga of Breath: A Step-by-Step Guide to Pranayama By Richard Rosen. Foreword by Rodney Yee. Illustrations by Kim Fraley. Boston, Shambhala, 2002. Index, notes, 304 pages. ISBN: 1570628890. VSCL.
Yogic Techniques for Stress Relief 67Kb. Includes breathing techiques.
Yoga: The Path to Holistic Health. By B.K.S. Iyengar. London, Dorling Kindersley, 2001. Glossary, index, 416 pages. ISBN: 0789471655. Lavishly illustrated compendium of essential poses, routines, prop use, and yoga routines to help specific health problems. The renowned Yogacharya B. K. S. Iyengar was born in India in 1918. VSCL.
1. Sit up straight, or stand
2. Breathe gently in through the nose. Relax the abdomen as you breath in.
3. Breath out through the slightly parted lips. Gently tighten the abdomen as you breath out.
4. Try to make the inhale and exhale equal in length.
5. Try to breathe in for four or five seconds, and breath out for four or five seconds each time.
6. Enjoy and be grateful for the ability to breathe fully and deeply.
7. Relax and take the time to breathe fully and deeply.
8. Smile outwardly and inwardly.
9. Think pleasant, wholesome, and kind-hearted thoughts; or don't think at all.
10. Don't complicate matters and be natural.
11. Do this exercise for ten minutes, twice a day.
This is a popular exercise in Chinese Chi Kung practices. This energetic practice involves controlled breathing, visualizations, and meditation. One circulates energy (Chi) up the spine to the head (as you slowly inhale), and then draws the energy down the front of the body to the lower energy centers (as you slowly exhale). We can find descriptions of this practice in many books on Chinese Chi Kung.
Wang Tao wrote a number of Taoist essays around 1400 CE. Eva Wong translated these essays in her book "Nourishing the Essence of Life" (Shambhala, 2004). She discusses concepts underlying Microcosmic Orbit circulation practice. Ms. Wong writes:
"The dragon and tiger are
respectively the yang and yin components of generative energy. Other
names for the dragon are: the yang dragon that hides within the fluid, the yin
within the yang (symbolized by the broken line flanked by two solid lines in the
the vapor within the fluid, the vapor of pure yang, and the true fire.
Other names for the tiger are: the yin tiger that hides within the vapor, the
yang within the yin (symbolized by the solid line flanked by two broken lines in
the trigram k'an), the fluid within the vapor, the fluid of pure yin (or
the the vapor of pure yin), and the true water. The dragon and tiger are
therefore the components or ingredients of mundane generative energy. Do
not confuse them with their carriers, fluid and vapor.
Central to the preservation and cultivation of generative energy is the process know as the copulation of the dragon and the tiger. The yin and yang components of generative energy meet and merge to become purified generative energy, which is called the primordial vapor. The process begins with the vapors of pure yang (dragon) and pure yin (tiger) rising from the base of the spine and traveling separately up the spine and through the shoulder blades. When the vapors reach the head, they interact (copulate) and merge to become one unified vapor. The unified vapor descends to the palate of the mouth and is manifested as nectar, a sweet, sticky fluid. Swallowed down the throat, the nectar enters the middle tan-t'ien (in the area of the solar plexus) and eventually completes its circuit when it reaches the base of the spine again."
- Eva Wong, Nourishing the Essence of Life, 2004, p. 9
Inhaling: Hui Yin to Ming Men to
Shen Zhu to Yu Zhen to Bai Hui
Exhaling: Bai Hui to Yin Tang to throat to Zhan Zong to Du Qi (Tan T'ien) to Hui Yin.
Correspondence to Chakras in Kundalini Yoga
1st Chakra Muladhara = Hui Yin
2nd Chakra Swadhisthana = Du Qui, Tan T'ien, Ming Men
3rd Chakra Manipurna = Tan T'ien
4th Chakra Anhata = Heart = Middle Tan T'ien
5th Chakra Vishuddha = Throat - Dai Zhui
6th Chakra Ajna = Third Eye = Yin Tang or Yu Zhen
7th Chakra Sahasrara = Crown of Head = Bai Hui
Doctrine of the Elixir: Microcosmic Orbit. By R. B. Jefferson.
Dragon and Tiger Medical Qigong: Health and Energy in Seven Simple Movements. By Bruce Frantzis. 245 pages. North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, California, 2010. ISBN: 9781556439216. VSCL.
Open the Microcosmic Orbit. By Michael Winn. Qigong Fundamentals 2. Healing Tao Home Study Video, 4 Audio CDs, 2008. The video DVD is titled "Open Chi Flow in the Orbit." 1 DVD, 2004.
Opening the Energy Gates of Your Body: Chi Gung for Lifelong Health (Tao of Energy Enhancement). By Bruce Kumar Frantzis. Illustrated by Husky Grafx. North Atlantic Books, 1993. Second Edition. 174 pages. ISBN: 1556431643. VSCL.
Qigong Meditation: Embroyonic Breathing. By Yang, Jwing-Ming. Boston, Mass., YMAA Publications, 2003. Index, glossary, 389 pages. ISBN: 1886969736. VSCL.
Qigong Meditation: Small Circulation. By Sifu Yang Jwing-Ming, Ph.D.. Boston, Mass., YMAA Publications, 2006. Index, extensive glossary, 402 pages. ISBN: 1594390673. VSCL.
P. Garofalo's E-Mail
© Michael P.
Garofalo, Green Way Research, Valley Spirit Qigong, Red Bluff, California
© Green Way Research, Red Bluff, California, 2004-2012
The information on this webpage was first published on the Internet WWW in March of 2004.
This webpage was last changed or updated on November 22, 2012.
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