Solitary Pagans
Hedge Druids, Hedge Witches

Cloud Hands Blog     One Old Druid's Final Journey     Green Way Research


By Michael Garofalo
Gushen Grove, Red Bluff, California


"The religion of one age is the literary entertainment of the next."
-  Ralph Waldo Emerson

I am not a Druid, Taoist, Buddhist, Tantric or Neo-Pagan believer or worshipper.  I, Mike Garofalo, investigate these subjects out of literary, philosophical, historical, aesthetic, moral, and sociological curiosity.  I am a student of comparative religions.  I don't believe in supernatural beings and don't belong to any religious organization.  I find the topics listed below interesting from a metaphorical, figurative, literary, imaginative, and aesthetic viewpoint. 



A 'Hedge Druid' or 'Hedge Witch' is a woman or man who practices Druidry or Witchcraft (Wicca) alone.  He or she is a solitary practitioner.  These individuals are more comfortable with solo spiritual or religious practices.  They seldom or never join with others in organized groups for worship, services, practices, study, or group efforts.

Some Hedge Druids may live in areas where there are no pagans or heathens who think and believe like they do. 

Some Hedge Druids are recluses or hermits for personal reasons.

Some Hedge Druids belong to a pagan organization, church, or study group but because of distance or preference they don't meet face to face with others in the group or attend group worship or activities. 

Some Hedge Druids don't like to share their spiritual practices with others or where there is not complete privacy. 

Some Hedge Druids prefer communicating with others only by postal mail or via email.

Some Hedge Druids keep their spiritual pursuits entirely to themselves to avoid conflicts with mean and controlling people in their family or community who want to impose their own religious views on everyone else. 

If you want to learn about the spiritual lifestyle of Hedge Druids or Hedge Witches then read the following books:


The Solitary Druid: A Practitioner's Guide 
By Robert Ellison.  Citadel, 224 pages, 2005. 

Northern Tradition for the Solitary Practitioner: A Book of Prayer, Devotional Practice, and the Nine Worlds of Spirit
Galina Krasskova and Raven Kaldera.  New Page Books, 254 pages, 2009. 

The Path of Druidry: Walking the Ancient Green Way
By Penny Billington.  Llewellyn, 360 pages, 2011. 






Wicca: A Guide for the Solitary Practitioner
By Scott Cunningham.  Llewellyn, 240 pages, 1989.  VSCL.   

Solitary Wicca For Life: Complete Guide to Mastering the Craft on Your Own
By Ann Murphy-Hiscock.  Provenance Press, 248 pages, 2005. 

Wicca For One: The Path Of Solitary Witchcraft
By Raymond Buckland.  Citadel, 256 pages, 2004. 






One Old Druid's Final Journey

The Notebooks of the Librarian of Gushen Grove    
Neo-Pagan, Druid, Taoist, and Green Spirituality
Religion, Ritual, Lore, Mysticism, Magic




Cloud Hands Blog

The Spirit of Gardening

Months and Seasons 

Nature Spirits - A Glossary

Ripening Peaches: Daoist Studies and Practices 

Tao Te Ching by Lao Tzu

Poems by Mike Garofalo

Wheel of the Year, Seasonal Celebrations 

Spring, Vernal Equinox, Ostara, Rebirth, Athena-Minerva, Resurrection, March 21st

Beltane, May Day, Walpurgis Nacht, May 1st

Summer Solstice, June 21st

Lughnasadh, Lammas, Midsummer Feast, August 1st  

Mabon, Autumn Equinox, Alban Elfed, September 21st  

Samhain, Halloween, Day of the Ancestors, October 31st

Yule, Winter Solstice, Saturnalia, New Year, December 20th-31st

Seasonal Celebrations   

Gushen Grove Sacred Circle Eightfold Worlds Correspondences


Lifestyle Advice from Wise Persons


Eight of Wands: Magick

The Green Wizard's Reading List

Nature Mysticism  

Via Positiva

Ways of Walking

The Green Man

Opening the Four Gates

Magic Pearl Qigong 

Tarot: Studies, Research, Magick and Practices  


Walking Meditation

Sacred Circles


Trees - Spirits

Tree of Life

Cloud Hands: T'ai Chi Ch'uan and Qigong

Green Way Research

Who is the Librarian of Gushen Grove?


Walking Meditation  

Sexual Magick

Trigrams - Bagua - I Ching

Above the Fog

Spirituality and Gardening 

Pulling Onions  

String Figures, String Art, String Games  

Red Bluff, California, Notebooks

Zen Poetry 

Mt. Shasta, California

Roman Hearth Neo-Pagan Religion 

Tarot: Studies, Research, Magick and Practices  

Valley Spirit (Gu Shen) 

The Religious Views of the Librarian of Gushen Grove

Gushen Grove, Red Bluff, CA




Mike Garofalo

Mike Garofalo
The Librarian of Gushen Grove






































































































































Druids, Druidry, Druidism, Druid, Oak Trees, Ogham, Awen, Grove, Protogrove,
Eclectic Neo-Pagan, Solitary, Wanderer, Philosopher,
Beginning, Beginner, Novice Druids, Dedicants, Initiates
Nature Spirituality, Nature Mysticism, Polytheism, Ecology
Mike Garofalo - The Valley Spirit Green Wizard, Red Bluff, California
A Druid's Study, Library, Home Office, Valley Spirit Center
Bookmark List, Subject Index, Net Guide, Reading List, Bibliography, Links
Librarian of Gushen Grove, Red Bluff, California
The Green Wizard of Gushen Grove
Notebooks of the Green Wizard

Neopagans, Northern Religions, Heathens, Druids, OBOD, ADF, RDNA
Druidry, Heathenism, Roman Greek German Religions, Mystics, Taoists, Polytheists
Wicca, Wiccan, Pagans, Paganism, Nature Mystics, Earth Centered Religion
Goddesses, Goddess, Mother Earth, Gaiaa, Mother Nature Religion Religious Beliefs Worship
Red Bluff, Tehama County, North Sacramento Valley, Northern California, U.S.A.
Cities and small towns in the area: Oroville, Paradise, Durham, Chico, Hamilton City,
Corning, Rancho Tehama, Los Molinos, Vina, Tehama, Proberta, Gerber, 
Manton, Cottonwood, Olinda, Cloverdale, Dairyville, Bend, Centerville, Summit City
Anderson, Shasta Lake, Palo Cedro, Igo, Ono, Redding, Shasta, Colusa, Willows,
Richfield, Fall River, Montgomery Creek, Alturas, McCloud, Dunsmuir, Yreka, Happy Camp,
Shingletown, Burney, Mt. Shasta City, Weaverville, Williams, Chester, Orland,
Susanville, Weed, Gridley, Marysville, Yuba City, NorCalifia, CA, California.
Valley Spirit Grove, Valley Spirit Protogrove, Gushen Grove, Red Bluff, California
Neopagans, Northern Religions, Heathens, Druids, OBOD, ADF, RDNA
Druidry, Heathenism, Roman Greek German Religions, Taoists, Polytheists
Wicca, Wiccan, Pagans, Paganism, Nature Mystics, Earth Centered Religion
Goddesses, Goddess, Mother Earth, Gaiaa, Mother Nature Religion Religious Beliefs Worship

Send Email to Mike Garofalo


The contents of this webpage were first published on the Internet on March 25, 2012.

This webpage was last modified or updated on March 26, 2012.