Philosophy of Science, History of Science, Reasoning, Experimentation,
Research, Theories, Facts, Methods, Protocols, Evidence, Documentation
Quantification, Universality, Technology, Applications

Bibliography     Links     Quotes     Notes 

Complexity     Interdependence     Biology   Intellectual History     Naturalism  

Psychology     Medicine     Cloud Hands Blog

Research by Michael P. Garofalo, M.S. 



Quotations, Sayings, Notes

Philosophy of Science, History of Science, Experimentation, Theories, Facts, Quantification, Falsifiable



"The ultimate test of a scientific hypothesis is experiment.  Experiment specifically means that you don't just wait for nature to do something, and passively observe it and see what it correlates with.  You go in there and do something.  You manipulate.  You change something, in a systematic way, and compare the result with a 'control' that lacks the change, or you compare it with a different change."
-  Richard Dawkins, The Greatest Show on Earth, 2009, p.66


"Much of what we know about plant physiology is based on results from carefully designed experiments.  Whether biologists, chemists, or physicists, experimental researchers employ a common systematic approach in their work when they follow the so-called scientific method.  Research is begun when observations of a particular biological or physical phenomena are made, both directly by the investigator and indirectly through the accounts of other scientists (and in some cases, amateurs) in scientific and other publications.  Extensive research in a library is an important prerequisite to experimentation.  For example, a plant physiologist interested in the Venus' flytrap and its rapid leaf closure many spend months searching the literature to become thoroughly acquainted with previously reported information and opinions on both the specific and related topics, in this case, plant movements in general.
    The second stage of the scientific method is the formulation of a hypothesis, a provisional conjecture based solely on preliminary observations of how the phenomenon takes place.  The hypothesis is then tested by a series of carefully planned experiments.  To be of value, such experiments must focus on the specific objective of study by limiting the number of external factors that may influence the outcome; and then it must be repeated several time to determine whether comparable results are obtainable.  Well-planned experimental design, the accuracy of the techniques employed, and the ability of other scientists to duplicate the work are crucial to the quality of scientific endeavor.
    Experiments may include laboratory tests of the plant's responses to various treatments, studies of the organism in its native habitat, microscopic examination of cells and tissues, or a combination of these and other methods.  The results of each experiment are recorded and, from time to time, evaluated for their contribution to an understanding of the topic under study.  From analysis of the accumulated data other experiments may be undertaken, techniques refined, and different approaches to the problem devised.
    Finally, when sufficient and convincing evidence has been collected for presentation to the scientific community, conclusions are drawn that may, or may not, support the original hypothesis.  Regardless of the outcome, the gathered information is of use to other scientists only if it reported factually and without bias on the part of the investigator.  Nowhere, in all human knowledge, must truth be accounted for more rigorously than in the world of science."  
-  Brian Capon, Botany for Gardeners, 2010, p. 146


"I believe that a unification of science is indeed possible if we are willing to expand the concept of science to include the basic principles and concepts of not only the physical but also the biological sciences.  Such a new philosophy of science will need to adopt a greatly enlarged vocabulary─one that includes such words as biopopulation, telenomy, and program.  It will have to abandon its loyalty to a rigid essentialism and determinism in favor of a broader recognition of stochastic processes, a pluralism of causes and effects, the hierarchical organization of much of nature, the emergence of unanticipated properties at higher hierarchical levels, the internal cohesion of complex systems, and many other concepts absent from─or at lest neglected by─the classical philosophy of science."
-  Ernst Mayr, Toward a New Philosophy of Biology, 1988, p. 21






Bibliography, Links, Resources

Science:  Physics, Chemistry, Biology


These are books I am reading, studying, using or have read that are in my home library (VSCL) in Red Bluff, California; or from books borrowed from local public or university libraries. 


Cloud Hands Blog    By Mike Garofalo

Complexity   Quotes, Sayings, Notes

Complexity: A Guided Tour. By Melanie Mitchell.  New York, Oxford University Press, 2009.  Index, bibliography, notes, 349 pages.  ISBN:  9780199798100.  VSCL. 

Cosmos  By Carl Sagan (1934-1996).  Introduction by Ann Druyan, and Foreword by Neil deGrasse Tyson.  Reprinted by Ballantine Books in 2013.  Originally published by Random House in 1980.  Index, recommended reading, notes, 432 pages. ISBN: 9780345539435.  VSCL.  The most popular science book of the last 50 years.  The TV series, Cosmos (1980), has been viewed by over 500 million people. 

The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark  By Carl Sagan.  New York, Ballantine Books, 1996.  Index, references, 457 pages.  ISBN: 9780345409461.  VSCL.  A thorough investigation of pseudo-science in contemporary life. 

"The History of Science" by Stephen F. Mason.  Collier, 1956.  VSCL. 

Naturalism, Scientific Attitude, Non-religious, Free Thought     Compiled by Mike Garofalo. 

Perception, The Five Senses 

Touching, Touch, Hands, Fingers 

Toward a New Philosophy of Biology: Observations of an Evolutionist.  By Ernst Mayr (1904-2005).  Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1988.  Index, bibliography, endnotes, 564 pages.  ISBN: 0674896661.  Read in 1/2017.  TCPL. 

Religion and Anti-Scientific Views


VSCL = Valley Spirit Center Library, Red Bluff, California


Fitness, Exercise Science

How to Life a Good Life: ifestyle Advice from Wise Persons

Virtue Ethics

Index to A Philosopher's Notebooks




Research by
Michael P. Garofalo

Green Way Research, Red Bluff, California

This webpage was last updated on January 4, 2017.   

This webpage was first distributed online on March 12, 2014. 

Michael P. Garofalo's E-mail

Brief Biography of Michael P. Garofalo, M.S.

Cloud Hands Blog

Index to A Philosopher's Notebooks