Chuang Tzu (Zhuangzi, Kwang-tse)
Translated by James Legge in 1891
James Legge (1815-1897) was the first Professor of Chinese at Oxford
Tâ Tsung Shih, or 'The Great Source as Teacher,'
'The Great Ancestral Teacher,"
'The Great and Honored Teacher,' 'The Great and Most
An Inner Chapter of Chuang Tzu (Zhuangzi, Zhuang Zhou,
Master Chuang) 369-286 BCE
1. The True Man and True Knowledge
He who knows the part which the Heavenly in him plays,
and knows also that which the Human in him ought to play, has reached the
perfection of knowledge. He who knows the part which the Heavenly plays, knows that it is naturally born with him; he who knows the part which the
Human ought to play proceeds with the knowledge which he possesses to nourish
it in the direction of what he does not yet know. To complete one's natural
term of years and not come to an untimely end in the middle of his course is the
fullness of knowledge. Although it be so, there is an evil attending this
condition. Such knowledge still awaits the confirmation of it as correct; it
does so because it is not yet determined. How do we know that what we call the
Heavenly in us is not the Human? And that what we call the Human is not the
Heavenly? There must be the True man, and then there is the True knowledge.
2. Qualities and Attitudes of the True
Man, Views on Life and Death
What is meant by 'the True Man?' The True men of old did
not reject the views of the few; they did not seek to accomplish their ends
like heroes before others; they did not lay plans to attain those ends. Being
such, though they might make mistakes, they had no occasion for repentance;
though they might succeed, they had no self-complacency. Being such, they could
ascend the loftiest heights without fear; they could pass through water without
being made wet by it; they could go into fire without being burnt; so it was
that by their knowledge they ascended to and reached the Tâo.
The True men of old did not dream when they slept, had
no anxiety when they awoke, and did not care that their food should be pleasant. Their breathing came deep and silently. The breathing of the true man comes
even from his heels, while men generally breathe from their throats. When men are defeated in argument, their words come from their gullets as if
they were vomiting. Where lusts and desires are deep, the springs of the
Heavenly are shallow.
The True men of old knew nothing of the love of life or
of the hatred of death. Entrance into life occasioned them no joy; the exit from
it awakened no resistance. Composedly they went and came. They did not forget
what their beginning bad been, and they did not inquire into what their end
would be. They accepted their life and rejoiced in it; they forgot all fear
of death, and returned to their state before life. Thus there was in them
what is called the want of any mind to resist the Tâo, and of all attempts by
means of the Human to assist the Heavenly. Such were they who are called the
3. Self-Constrained, Poised, Reserved,
Withdrawn, Aloof, Quiet, and Selfless Behavior of the Sage
Being such, their minds were free from all thought;
their demeanor was still and unmoved; their foreheads beamed simplicity.
Whatever coldness came from them was like that of autumn; whatever warmth came
from them was like that of spring. Their joy and anger assimilated to what we
see in the four seasons. They did in regard to all things what was suitable, and
no one could know how far their action would go. Therefore the sagely man might,
in his conduct of war, destroy a state without losing the hearts of the people;
his benefits and favors might extend to a myriad generations without his being a
lover of men. Hence, he who tries to share his joys with others is not a sagely
man; he who manifests affection is not benevolent; he who observes times and
seasons to regulate his conduct is not a man of wisdom; he to whom profit and
injury are not the same is not a superior man; he who acts for the sake of the
name of doing so, and loses his proper self is not the right scholar; and he
who throws away his person in a way which is not the true way cannot command
the service of others. Such men as Hû Pû-kieh, Wû Kwang, Po-î, Shû-khî, the
count of Kî, Hsü-yü, Kî Thâ, and Shan-thû Tî, all did service for other men, and
sought to secure for them what they desired, not seeking their own pleasure.
4. Qualities and Accommodations of the
True Man (Sage)
The True men of old presented the aspect of judging
others aright, but without being partisans; of feeling their own insufficiency,
but being without flattery or cringing. Their peculiarities were natural to
them, but they were not obstinately attached to them; their humility was
evident, but there was nothing of unreality or display about it. Their placidity
and satisfaction had the appearance of joy; their every movement seemed to be a
necessity to them. Their accumulated attractiveness drew men's looks to them;
their blandness fixed men's attachment to their virtue. They seemed to
accommodate themselves to the manners of their age, but with a certain
severity; their haughty indifference was beyond its control. Unceasing seemed
their endeavors to keep their mouths shut; when they looked down, they had
forgotten what they wished to say.
Other Translations of 6.4
"Assured! his stability, but not rigid:
Pervasive! his tenuous influence, but it is not on display.
Lighthearted! Seems to be doing as he pleases:
Under compulsion! Inevitable that he does it.
Impetuously! asserts a manner of his own:
Cautiously! holds the Power which is his own.
So tolerant! in his seeming worldliness:
So arrogant! in his refusal to be ruled.
Canny! Seems he likes to keep his mouth shut:
Scatterbrained! Forgets every word that he says."
Chuang-Tzu, Chapter 6.4
Translation by Angus Graham,
Chuang-Tzu: The Inner Chapters, 1981, 2000, p. 85
'The Genuine Human Beings of old seemed to do whatever
was called for but were not partisan to any one course. They appeared to
be in want but accepted no assistance. Taking part in all things, they
were solitary but never rigid. Spreading out everywhere, they were empty
but never insubstantial. Cheerful, they seemed to be enjoying themselves.
Impelled along, they did what they could not help doing. The let
everything gather within them but still it manifested outwardly to the world as
their own countenance. They gave it all away, but still it rested securely
with them as their own Virtuosity. Leprous with symptoms, they seem just
like everyone else. Haughty, nothing could control them. Oblivious,
they would forget what they were saying."
Zhuangzi, Chapter 6.4
Translation by Brook Ziporyn,
Zhuangzi: The Essential Writings, 2009, p. 41
"The true man in ancient times was upright but
impartial, humble but not servile. He had distinct natural characteristics
but was not adamant about them; his humility was evident but not displayed.
Pleasant and composed, he seemed to be content. His actions appeared to
spring from necessity. People were drawn to his virtue; he seemed to
comply with the age but with a certain reserve. His independence of spirit
was limitless. Endeavoring to remain silent, he forgot what he wished to
Zhuangzi, Chapter 6.4
Translated by Hyun Hochsmann and Yang Guorong,
"The true man of old
Was towering in stature but never collapses,
Seem insufficient but accepted nothing.
Aloofly independent but not obstinate,
Amply empty but not ostentatious,
Demurring, as though he were compelled,
Suffused with an alluring charm,
Endowed with an arresting integrity,
Stern, as though he were worldly,
Arrogant, as though he were uncontrollable,
Reticent, as though he preferred to clam up,
Absent-minded, as thought he forgot what to say."
Chuang Tzu, Chapter 6.4
Translated by Victor H. Mair,
Wandering on the Way: Early Taoist Tales and Parables of Chuang Tzu,
Chuang Tzu, a translation by James Legge, 1891, Chapter 6.4-
They considered punishments to be the substance of
government, and they never incurred it; ceremonies to be its supporting wings
and they always observed them; wisdom to indicate the time for action, and
they always selected it; and virtue to be accordance with others, and they
were all-accordant. Considering punishments to be the substance of government,
yet their generosity appeared in the manner of their infliction of death. Considering ceremonies to be its supporting wings, they pursued by means of them
their course in the world. Considering wisdom to indicate the time for action,
they felt it necessary to employ it in the direction of affairs. Considering
virtue to be accordance with others, they sought to ascend its height along
with all who had feet to climb it. Such were they, and yet men really
thought that they did what they did by earnest effort.
5. Liking and Disliking Neutralized,
Life and Death Inevitable, Respect for the Superior Way
In this way they were one and the same in all their
likings and dislikings. Where they liked, they were the same; where they did not
like, they were the same. In the former case where they liked, they were
fellow-workers with the Heavenly in them; in the latter where they disliked,
they were co-workers with the Human in them. The one of these elements in their
nature did not overcome the other. Such were those who are called the True men.
Death and life are ordained, just as we have the
constant succession of night and day; in both cases from Heaven. Men have no
power to do anything in reference to them; such is the constitution of things. There are those who specially regard Heaven as their father, and they still love
It, distant as It is; how much more should they love That which stands out
Superior and Alone! Some specially regard their ruler as superior to
themselves, and will give their bodies to die for him; how much more should they
do so for That which is their true Ruler! When the springs are dried up, the
fishes collect together on the land. Than that they should moisten one another
there by the damp about them, and keep one another wet by their slime, it would
be better for them to forget one another in the rivers and lakes. And when men
praise Yâo and condemn Kieh, it would be better to forget them both, and seek
the renovation of the Tâo.
There is the great Mass (of nature);-- I find the
support of my body on it; my life is spent in toil on it; my old age seeks ease
on it; at death I find rest in it;-- what makes my life a good makes my death
also a good. If you hide away a boat in the ravine of a hill, and hide away the
hill in a lake, you will say that (the boat) is secure; but at midnight there
shall come a strong man and carry it off on his back, while you in the dark know
nothing about it. You may hide away anything, whether small or great, in the
most suitable place, and yet it shall disappear from it. But if you could hide
the world in the world, so that there was nowhere to which it could be removed,
this would be the grand reality of the ever-during Thing. When the body of man
comes from its special mould, there is even then occasion for joy; but this body
undergoes a myriad transformations, and does not immediately reach its
perfection;-- does it not thus afford occasion for joys incalculable? Therefore
the sagely man enjoys himself in that from which there is no possibility of
separation, and by which all things are preserved. He considers early death or
old age, his beginning and his ending, all to be good, and in this other men
imitate him;-- how much more will they do so in regard to That Itself on which
all things depend, and from which every transformation arises!
This is the Tâo;-- there is in It emotion and sincerity,
but It does nothing and has no bodily form. It may be handed down (by the
teacher), but may not be received (by his scholars). It may be apprehended (by
the mind), but It cannot be seen. It has Its root and ground (of existence) in
Itself. Before there were heaven and earth, from of old, there It was, securely
existing. From It came the mysterious existences of spirits, from It the
mysterious existence of God. It produced heaven; It produced earth. It was
before the Thâi-kî, and yet could not be considered high; It was below all
space, and yet could not be considered deep. It was produced before heaven and
earth, and yet could not be considered to have existed long; It was older than
the highest antiquity, and yet could not be considered old.
Shih-wei got It, and by It adjusted heaven and earth.
Fû-hsî got It, and by It penetrated to the mystery of the maternity of the
primary matter. The Wei-tâu got It, and from all antiquity has made no eccentric
movement. The Sun and Moon got It, and from all antiquity have not intermitted
(their bright shining). Khan-pei got It, and by It became lord of Khwan-lun.
Fang-î got It, and by It enjoyed himself in the Great River. Kien Wû got It, and
by It dwelt on mount Thâi. Hwang-Tî got It, and by It ascended the cloudysky.
Kwan-hsü got It, and by It dwelt in the Dark Palace. Yü-khiang got It, and by It
was set on the North Pole. Hsî Wang-mû got It, and by It had her seat in (the
palace of) Shâo-kwang. No one knows Its beginning; no one knows Its end. Phang
Tsû got It, and lived on from the time of the lord of Yü to that of the Five
Chiefs. Fû Yüeh got It, and by It became chief minister to Wû-ting, (who thus)
in a trice became master of the kingdom. (After his death), Fû Yüeh mounted to
the eastern portion of the Milky Way, where, riding on Sagittarius and Scorpio,
he took his place among the stars.
Nan-po Tsze-khwei asked Nü Yü, saying, 'You are old,
Sir, while your complexion is like that of a child;-- how is it so?' The reply
was, 'I have become acquainted with the Tâo.' The other said, 'Can I learn the
Tâo?' Nü Yü said, 'No. How can you? You, Sir, are not the man to do so. There
was Pû-liang Î who had the abilities of a sagely man, but not the Tâo, while I
had the Tâo, but not the abilities. I wished, however, to teach him, if,
peradventure, he might become the sagely man indeed. If he should not do so, it
was easy (I thought) for one possessing the TAo of the sagely man to communicate
it to another possessing his abilities. Accordingly, I proceeded to do so, but
with deliberation. After three days, he was able to banish from his mind all
worldly (matters). This accomplished, I continued my intercourse with him in the
same way; and in seven days he was able to banish from his mind all thought of
men and things. This accomplished, and my instructions continued, after nine
days, he was able to count his life as foreign to himself. This accomplished,
his mind was afterwards clear as the morning; and after this he was able to see
his own individuality. That individuality perceived, he was able to banish all
thought of Past or Present. Freed from this, he was able to penetrate to (the
truth that there is no difference between) life and death;-- (how) the
destruction of life is not dying, and the communication of other life is not
living. (The Tâo) is a thing which accompanies all other things and meets them,
which is present when they are overthrown and when they obtain their completion.
Its name is Tranquillity amid all Disturbances, meaning that such Disturbances
lead to Its Perfection.'
'And how did you, being alone (without any teacher),
learn all this?' 'I learned it,' was the reply, 'from the son of Fû-mo; he
learned it from the grandson of Lo-sung; he learned it from Shan-ming; he
learned it from Nieh-hsü; he, from Hsü-yî; he, from Wû-âo; he, from Hsüan-ming;
he, from Tshan-liâo; and he learned it from Î-shih.'
Tsze-sze, Tsze-yü, Tsze-lî, and Tsze-lâi, these four
men, were talking together, when some one said, 'Who can suppose the head to
be made from nothing, the spine from life, and the rump-bone from death? Who
knows how death and birth, living on and disappearing, compose the one
body?-- I would be friends with him.' The four men looked at one another and
laughed, but no one seized with his mind the drift of the questions. All,
however, were friends together.
Not long after Tsze-yü fell ill, and Tsze-sze went
to inquire for him. 'How great,' said (the sufferer), 'is the Creator! That
He should have made me the deformed object that I am!' He was a crooked
hunchback; his five viscera were squeezed into the upper part of his body;
his chin bent over his navel; his shoulder was higher than his crown; on his
crown was an ulcer pointing to the sky; his breath came and went in gasps:--
yet he was easy in his mind, and made no trouble of his condition. He limped
to a well, looked at himself in it, and said, 'Alas that the Creator should
have made me the deformed object that I am!' Tsze said, 'Do you dislike your
condition?' He replied, 'No, why should I dislike it? If He were to
transform my left arm into a cock, I should be watching with it the time of
the night; if He were to transform my right arm into a cross-bow, I should
then be looking for a hsiâo to (bring down and) roast; if He were to
transform my rump-bone into a wheel, and my spirit into a horse, I should
then be mounting it, and would not change it for another steed. Moreover,
when we have got (what we are to do), there is the time (of life) in which
to do it; when we lose that (at death), submission (is what is required).
When we rest in what the time requires, and manifest that submission,
neither joy nor sorrow can find entrance (to the mind). This would be what
the ancients called loosing the cord by which (the life) is suspended. But
one hung up cannot loose himself;-- he is held fast by his bonds. And that
creatures cannot overcome Heaven (the inevitable) is a long-acknowledged
fact;-- why should I hate my condition?'
Before long Tsze-lâi fell ill, and lay gasping at
the point of death, while his wife and children stood around him wailing.
Tsze-lî went to ask for him, and said to them, 'Hush! Get out of the way! Do
not disturb him as he is passing through his change.' Then, leaning against
the door, he said (to the dying man), 'Great indeed is the Creator! What
will He now make you to become? Where will He take you to? Will He make you
the liver of a rat, or the arm of an insect? Tsze-lâi replied, 'Wherever a
parent tells a son to go, east, west, south, or north, he simply follows the
command. The Yin and Yang are more to a man than his parents are. If they
are hastening my death, and I do not quietly submit to them, I shall be
obstinate and rebellious. There is the great Mass (of nature);-- I find the
support of my body in it; my life is spent in toil on it; my old age seeks
ease on it; at death I find rest on it:-- what has made my life a good will
make my death also a good.
'Here now is a great founder, casting his metal. If
the metal were to leap up (in the pot), and say, "I must be made into a
(sword like the) Mo-yeh," the great founder would be sure to regard it as
uncanny. So, again, when a form is being fashioned in the mould of the womb,
if it were to say, "I must become a man; I must become a man," the Creator
would be sure to regard it as uncanny. When we once understand that heaven
and earth are a great melting-pot, and the Creator a great founder, where
can we have to go to that shall not be right for us? We are born as from a
quiet sleep, and we die to a calm awaking.'
Tsze-sang Hû, Mang Tsze-fan, and Tsze-khin Kang,
these three men, were friends together. (One of them said), 'Who can
associate together without any (thought of) such association, or act
together without any (evidence of) such co-operation? Who can mount up into
the sky and enjoy himself amidst the mists, disporting beyond the utmost
limits (of things), and forgetting all others as if this were living, and
would have no end?' The three men looked at one another and laughed, not
perceiving the drift of the questions; and they continued to associate
together as friends.
Suddenly, after a time, Tsze-sang Hû died. Before he
was buried, Confucius heard of the event, and sent Tsze-kung to go and see
if he could render any assistance. One of the survivors had composed a
ditty, and the other was playing on his lute. Then they sang together in
'Ah! come, Sang Hû! ah! come,
Your being true you've got again,
While we, as men, still here remain
Tsze-kung hastened forward to them, and said, 'I
venture to ask whether it be according to the rules to be singing thus in
the presence of the corpse?' The two men looked at each other, and laughed,
saying, 'What does this man know about the idea that underlies (our) rules?'
Tsze-kung returned to Confucius, and reported to him, saying, 'What sort of
men are those? They had made none of the usual preparations, and treated the
body as a thing foreign to them. They were singing in the presence of the
corpse, and there was no change in their countenances. I cannot describe
them;-- what sort of men are they?' Confucius replied, 'Those men occupy and
enjoy themselves in what is outside the (common) ways (of the world), while
I occupy and enjoy myself in what lies within those ways. There is no common
ground for those of such different ways; and when I sent you to condole with
those men, I was acting stupidly. They, moreover, make man to be the fellow
of the Creator, and seek their enjoyment in the formless condition of heaven
and earth. They consider life to be an appendage attached, an excrescence
annexed to them, and death to be a separation of the appendage and a
dispersion of the contents of the excrescence. With these views, how should
they know wherein death and life are to be found, or what is first and what
is last? They borrow different substances, and pretend that the common form
of the body is composed of them. They dismiss the thought of (its inward
constituents like) the liver and gall, and (its outward constituents), the
ears and eyes. Again and again they end and they begin, having no knowledge
of first principles. They occupy themselves ignorantly and vaguely with what
(they say) lies outside the dust and dirt (of the world), and seek their
enjoyment in the business of doing nothing. How should they confusedly
address themselves to the ceremonies practiced by the common people, and
exhibit themselves as doing so to the ears and eyes of the multitude?'
Tsze-kung said, 'Yes, but why do you, Master, act
according to the (common) ways (of the world)?' The reply was, 'I am in this
under the condemning sentence of Heaven. Nevertheless, I will share with you
(what I have attained to).' Tsze-kung rejoined, 'I venture to ask the method
which you pursue;' and Confucius said, 'Fishes breed and grow in the water;
man develops in the Tâo. Growing in the water, the fishes cleave the pools,
and their nourishment is supplied to them. Developing in the Tâo, men do
nothing, and the enjoyment of their life is secured. Hence it is said,
"Fishes forget one another in the rivers and lakes; men forget one another
in the arts of the Tâo."'
Tsze-kung said, 'I venture to ask about the man who
stands aloof from others.' The reply was, 'He stands aloof from other men,
but he is in accord with Heaven! Hence it is said, "The small man of Heaven
is the superior man among men; the superior man among men is the small man
Yen Hui asked Kung-nî, saying, 'When the mother
of Mang-sun Tshâi died, in all his wailing for her he did not shed a
tear; in the core of his heart he felt no distress; during all the
mourning rites, he exhibited no sorrow. Without these three things, he
(was considered to have) discharged his mourning well;-- is it that in
the state of Lû one who has not the reality may yet get the reputation
of having it? I think the matter very strange.' Kung-nî said, 'That Mang-sun
carried out (his views) to the utmost. He was advanced in knowledge; but
(in this case) it was not possible for him to appear to be negligent (in
his ceremonial observances)', but he succeeded in being really so to
himself. Mang-sun does not know either what purposes life serves, or
what death serves; he does not know which should be first sought, and
which last. If he is to be transformed into something else, he will
simply await the transformation which he does not yet know. This is all
he does. And moreover, when one is about to undergo his change, how does
he know that it has not taken place? And when he is not about to undergo
his change, how does he know that it has taken place? Take the case of
me and you:-- are we in a dream from which we have not begun to awake?
'Moreover, Mang-sun presented in his body the
appearance of being agitated, but in his mind he was conscious of no
loss. The death was to him like the issuing from one's dwelling at dawn,
and no (more terrible) reality. He was more awake than others were. When
they wailed, he also wailed, having in himself the reason why he did so.
And we all have our individuality which makes us what we are as compared
together; but how do we know that we determine in any case correctly
that individuality? Moreover you dream that you are a bird, and seem to
be soaring to the sky; or that you are a fish, and seem to be diving in
the deep. But you do not know whether we that are now speaking are awake
or in a dream. It is not the meeting with what is pleasurable that
produces the smile; it is not the smile suddenly produced that produces
the arrangement (of the person). When one rests in what has been
arranged, and puts away all thought of the transformation, he is in
unity with the mysterious Heaven.'
Î-r Tsze having gone to see Hsü Yü, the latter
said to him, 'What benefit have you received from Yâo?' The reply was, 'Yâo
says to me, You must yourself labor at benevolence and righteousness,
and be able to tell clearly which is right and which wrong (in
conflicting statements).' Hsü Yû rejoined, 'Why then have you come to
me? Since Yâo has put on you the brand of his benevolence and
righteousness, and cut off your nose with his right and wrong, how will
you be able to wander in the way of aimless enjoyment, of unregulated
contemplation, and the ever-changing forms (of dispute)?' Î-r Tsze said,
'That may be; but I should like to skirt along its hedges.' 'But,' said
the other, 'it cannot be. Eyes without pupils can see nothing of the
beauty of the eyebrows, eyes, and other features; the blind have nothing
to do with the green, yellow, and variegated colors of the sacrificial
robes.' Î-r Tsze rejoined, 'Yet, when Wû-kwang lost his beauty, Kü-liang
his strength, and Hwang-Tî his wisdom, they all (recovered them) under
the molding (of your system);-- how do you know that the Maker will not
obliterate the marks of my branding, and supply my dismemberment, so
that, again perfect in my form, I may follow you as my teacher?' Hsü Yû
said, 'Ah! that cannot yet be known. I will tell you the rudiments. 0 my
Master! 0 my Master! He gives to all things their blended qualities, and
does not count it any righteousness; His favours reach to all
generations, and He does not count it any benevolence; He is more
ancient than the highest antiquity, and does not count Himself old; He
overspreads heaven and supports the earth; He carves and fashions all
bodily forms, and does not consider it any act of skill;-- this is He in
whom I find my enjoyment.'
Yen Hui said, 'I am making progress.' Kung-nî
replied, 'What do you mean?' 'I have ceased to think of benevolence and
righteousness,' was the reply.
'Very well; but that is not enough.'
Another day, Yen Hui again saw Master Kung-nî, and said, 'I
am making progress.' 'What do you mean?' 'I have lost all thought of
ceremonies and music.'
'Very well, but that is not enough.'
A third day, Yen Hui again saw Master Kung-nî, and
said, 'I am making progress.' 'What do you mean?' 'I sit and forget
Kung-nî changed countenance, and said, 'What do you mean by
saying that you sit and forget everything?'
Yen Hui replied, 'My
connection with the body and its parts is dissolved; my perceptive
organs are discarded. Thus leaving my material form, and bidding
farewell to my knowledge, I am become one with the Great Pervader. This
I call sitting and forgetting all things.'
Kung-nî said, 'One with that Pervader, you are free from all likings; so transformed, you
impermanent. You have, indeed, become superior to me! I must ask leave
to follow in your steps.'
Other Translations of 6.14
"Yan Hui saw Confucius again and said, "I have made progress."
"What do you mean?" asked Confucius.
"I sit and forget everything."
Confucius was alarmed and asked, "What do you mean by sitting down and
Yan Hui replied, "I leave behind my body, perception and knowledge.
Detached from both material form and mind.
I become one with that which penetrates all things. This I call sitting
and forgetting everything."
Confucius said, "If you are one with that which penetrates all things you will
be free from partiality. If you are
transformed thus you have become evanescent. You are truly a worthy man.
I ask to follow your steps."
- Zhuangzi, Book 6.14, Translated by Hyun Hochsmann and Yang Guorong, 2007,
"Yan Hui said, "I am making
Confucius said, "What do you mean?"
Yan Hui said, "I have forgotten Humanity and Responsibility."
Confucius said, "That's good, but you're still not there."
Another day, he came again and said, "I am making progress."
"What do you mean?"
"I have forgotten ritual and music."
Confucius said, "That's good, but you're still not there."
He returned another day and said yet again, "I am making progress."
"What do you mean?"
Yan Hui said, "I just sit and forget."
Confucius, jolted as if kicked, said, "What do you mean, you sit and
Yan Hui said, "It's a dropping away of my limbs and torso, a chasing off
of my sensory acuity, which disperses my
physical form and ousts my understanding until I am the same as the
Transforming Openness. This is what I call
just sitting and forgetting." "
- Translated by Brook Ziporyn, 2009, p. 49,
Zhaungzi, Book 6.14
Chuang Tzu, a translation by James Legge, 1891, Chapter 6.15-
Tsze-yü and Tsze-sang were friends. (Once), when
it had rained continuously for ten days, Tsze-yü said, 'I fear that Tsze-sang
may be in distress.' So he wrapped up some rice, and went to give it to
him to eat. When he came to Tsze-sang's door, there issued from it
sounds between singing and wailing; a lute was struck, and there came
the words, '0 Father! 0 Mother! 0 Heaven! 0 Men!' The voice could not
sustain itself, and the line was hurriedly pronounced. Tsze-yü entered
and said, 'Why are you singing, Sir, this line of poetry in such a way?'
The other replied, 'I was thinking, and thinking in vain, how it was
that I was brought to such extremity. Would my parents have wished me to
be so poor? Heaven overspreads all without any partial feeling, and so
does Earth sustain all;-- Would Heaven and Earth make me so poor with
any unkindly feeling? I was trying to find out who had done it, and I
could not do so. But here I am in this extremity!-- it is what was
appointed for me!'
Chuang Tzu (Zuangzi, Zhuang Zhou, Master Chuang)
369—286 BCE Bibliography, Links, Quotes, Notes. Compiled by
Translated by James Legge, 1891. Chapters 1-14. Chinese Text
Project: English translation and Chinese characters.
Translated by James Legge, 1891. Chapters 1-33. Brief notes.
Prepared by Tormod Kinnes, 2001.
Translated by James Legge, 1891. Chapters 1-33. Complied by Stephen
Chuang Tzu. Translated by James
Legge, 1891. Chapter 1-33. Extensive footnotes for each Chapter.
Prepared by RatMachines - Philosophy.
Translated by James Legge, 1891. Chapter 1-33. Sacred Text Archive.
This version includes an introduction for each Chapter and detailed footnotes.
Translated by James Legge, 1891. Chapter 6. Includes selected
translations of specific passages in Chapter 6 from other translators besides
James Legge, and notes. Prepared by Mike Garofalo, 2013.
Tao Te Ching
(Dao De Jing) by Lao Tzu (Laozi) Collected translations, indexes,
themes. Compiled by Mike Garofalo.
James Legge (Chinese Name: 理雅各; December 20, 1815 – November 29, 1897) was a
noted Scottish sinologist, a Scottish Congregationalist, representative of the
London Missionary Society in Malacca and Hong Kong (1840–1873), and first
professor of Chinese at Oxford University (1876–1897). In association with
he prepared the monumental
Sacred Books of the East series, published in 50 volumes between 1879
Gushen Grove Notebooks for the Tao Te Ching
Michael P. Garofalo
Way Research, Valley Spirit
Grove, Gushen Grove Notebooks, Red Bluff, California
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